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International Financial Management C45.0030.001 T & R, 9:30 – 10:45 am Tisch Hall, UC-59 Lubomir P. Litov
The instructor Fourth year Ph.D. in finance & economics @ Stern. Spent 2 years as investment banker in Bulgaria, Austria, & UK working on privatization deals for major European industrial firms, banks, & investment companies. Interests in int’l corporate governance, int’l mergers & acquisitions, cross-border valuation.
Today’s Agenda Overview of syllabus & forms. Important Deadlines. Overview of the material we will cover this semester. Q: Why is important to study international finance? Q: How is it different from domestic finance? Start with analysis of the global financial environment.
Objectives of the course Explore int’l financial markets Main players. Main instruments. Market structure. Multinational Companies distinct exposures multinationals face? available financial tools to address these risks? Capital budgeting? Managing capital internationally? Investment & Capital Structure Decisions? International investor cost & benefits of int’l diversification. Instruments for diversification.
Syllabus Blackboard – online software we will use. Textbook. Textbook website. Requirements: Course participation (10%) Case study team presentation (15%) Individual case study write-up (10%) Five Quizzes (35%) Final Exam (30%)
Syllabus Case studies (12): textbook or business publications. One-minute memos. Problem sets Coming Deadlines 09/04: 1. seating chart; 2. turn in info sheet. 09/09: 1. Form/ change teams; 2. Presentation dates lottery.
Important dates Case study presentations Quizzes
Why study int’l finance? Globalization & integration of economies around the globe. Consume products in country A, made in country B, by company in country C, w/ financing from country D. e.g. Canadian buys Phillips TV, made in Indonesia, w/ financing from a Dutch bank.
What is different about int’l finance? Presence of additional costs (think of risks) Foreign exchange risks profits may melt down when unexpected unfavorable exchange rate movements. Venezuelan strike. Currency: -46 % 2002. Malaysia introduces capital controls, 1998. Fixed rate @ 3.8/US$ vs. 4+/US$ pre- announcement of capital controls. Country risks. Russia: bureaucrats don’t enforce law consistently. Q: what’s more important –law existence or enforcement? Credit risks Not easy to seize collateral abroad due to legal restrictions.
Political (or Country) Risk… Governments have right to regulate movement of goods, people, & capital. Laws can change unexpectedly…. E.g. Russian GKO Default triggered the August 1998 Russian crisis Venezuelan strike. Government forced some plants, e.g. Coca Cola, to re-open despite labor/ management opposition. Africa: AIDS concerned governments regulate pricing of AIDS treatment medicines (Pfizer, Glaxo Welcome)
What is different about int’l finance? Presence of additional opportunities Arbitrage market imperfections Restrictions on flows of capital, people, merchandise. Transportation costs. Tax differences German car manufacturers in US. Chinese A- & B-shares. Chinese can purchase only A-shares, foreigners, B-shares. Short-selling not allowed in many stock markets. Expand opportunity set Diversification (both company & investor) Source capital, work force, merchandise w/ lower cost.
The Global Financial Environment (or chapter 1)
Agenda: What is globalization process? How globalization moves a business from domestic to global? What are the main risk exposures that arise in multinational businesses? How globalization affects corporate governance and the value creation for stakeholders?
Globalization process? The structural and managerial changes/challenges experienced by a firm as it moves from domestic to global.
Phase One: Domestic Trade U.S. Suppliers (domestic) U.S. Buyers (domestic) All payments in US dollars; All credit risk under U.S. law Honeywell (US) Mexican Suppliers Canadian Buyers Are Mexican suppliers dependable? Will Trident pay US$ or Mexican pesos? Are Canadian buyers creditworthy? Will payment be made in US$ or C$? Phase Two: International Trade The Globalization Process
Exchange rate changes Accounting exposure Operating exposure Changes in reported owners’ equity in consolidated financial statements caused by a change in exchange rates Changes in cash flows due to changes in exchange rates Transaction exposure Impact of settling outstanding obligations entered into before change in exchange rates to be settled after change in exchange rates Time Risk Exposures
Greater Foreign Presence Greater Foreign Investment Foreign Direct Investment Sequence Honeywell Intl (US) Enjoy Competitive Advantage @ Home Explore Competitive Advantage Abroad Produce Home & Export Produce Abroad Licensing, Managerial Contract Asset Acquisition Abroad Joint Venture Subsidiary “Greenfield” Investment Mergers & Acquisitions
FDI Strategies Greenfield Investment: A long-term physical investment in productive capability in that country Cross-Border Acquisition: Identification, valuation, tender, and post-acquisition management of an existing going-concern. Joint Venture Investment: Combining investment capital and managerial know-how to reach specific opportunities.
Multinational Enterprises (MNE) Incorporated in one country w/ production & sales in other countries. More than 60,000 MNE w/ 500K + foreign affiliates. Many MNE source raw materials in country A, obtain financing in country B, produce w/ labor & capital in country C, & sell output in various national markets.
How important multinationality can be? Answer: ask Mr. Jurgen Schremmp…(DaimlerChrysler CEO)
(Divergent) Managerial Objectives What is the goal of management goal? Shareholder Wealth Maximization Max. shareholder value. Corporate Wealth Maximization Max. all stakeholders value . Cronysm Asset re-allocation to family related firms. Politically Connected Firms or the case of senator Agnelli
Corporate Governance Relationship among stakeholders used to determine control the strategic directions of a company. Failures “Rubber stamp” board of directors. Interlocking directorates. Dual classes vs. one-share-one-vote class of stock. Pyramidal Structures. Relevance in emerging markets (Russia & China).
Shareholders Shareholders Firm (management) Main Bank Firm (management) Banks Employees Corporate Governance Shareholder Value Max VS. Corporate Value Max. The Non-Anglo-American Model has come under increasing criticism for its lack of accountability to equity investors – its shareholders – while focusing on the demands of too diffuse a group of stakeholders. The Anglo-American Model has been frequently criticized as focusing on short-term profitability rather than long-term growth.
SWM vs. CVM • Leverage buyouts? • Conglomerates? • Interlocking directorates? • High leverage? • Stock options for the CEO? Think about it…
Int’l finance from Investors’ Perspective Costs & Benefits of International Portfolio Diversification as we discussed in the replies… Behavioral Biases home bias: even though there is a benefit to financial diversification overseas, still US investors stick to their own… melting pot or salad bowl: US foreign direct investments are correlated with the countries of origin.