Recommended text books. Basic and Clinical pharmacology, 10th or 11th edition, B.G. Katzung , LANGE medical book. Lippincott´s ilustrated reviews: Pharmacology 3rd edition, R.A.Harvey, Champe P.C., R.D. Howland, M.J. Mycek, Lippincott -Raven ,.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Basic and Clinical pharmacology, 10th or 11th edition, B.G.Katzung, LANGE medical book.
Lippincott´s ilustrated reviews: Pharmacology 3rd edition, R.A.Harvey, Champe P.C., R.D. Howland, M.J. Mycek, Lippincott-Raven,.
Pharmacology, 6th edition, H.P.Rang, M.M. Dále, J.M. Ritter, Churchill Livingstone, 2007.
Dr. Roshna S. Aziz
Department of Pharmacology
School of Medicine
University of Sulaimani
Fungal cell membranes have a unique sterol, ergosterol, which replaces cholesterol found in mammalian cell membranes
Systemic & topicalsome are fungistatic, while others are fungicidal
Produced by Streptomyses nodosum
High affinity for fungal ergosterol, forms “micropore” in fungal cell membrane through which ions, amino acids, & other water soluble substances move out.
Markedly increases cell permeability.
Cholestrol, present in host cell membranes, closely resembles fungal ergosterol & thus explains the high toxicity of AMB in humans
To reduce the severity of the infusion-related reactions, pretreatment with an antipyretic (acetaminophen), antihistamines, and antiemetics may be given.
Fever & chills,
K & Mg wasting
New lipid formulations
Amphotericin B is incorporated into lipid formulations to reduce toxicity & enhance efficacy. This allows higher dose to be used without increasing the toxicity.
Much more expensive than ordinary AMB.
Flucytosine is taken up by fungal cells via the enzyme cytosine permease.
Human cells are unable to convert the parent drug to its active metabolites.
BROAD SPECTRUM OF ACTIVITY –
Abnormalities in liver enzymes
(inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes)
Very rarely, clinical hepatitis
It is deposited in newly forming skin where it binds to keratin, protecting the skin from new infection.
Interferes with spindle formation in dividing cells and therefore with mitosis
Like the azole drugs, it interferes with ergosterol biosynthesis, but rather than interacting with the P450 system, terbinafine inhibits the fungal enzyme squalene epoxidase. This leads to the accumulation of the sterol squalene, which is toxic to the organism.
Rare, mild, self-limiting