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Introduction to Interaction Design ( Ch 2.1 – 2.2). Yonglei Tao School of Computing and Info Systems GVSU. Frameworks for Understanding Interaction. A framework is a structure that provides a context for conceptualizing something Using frameworks to: Structure the design process

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Introduction to Interaction Design ( Ch 2.1 – 2.2)


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    1. Introduction to Interaction Design (Ch 2.1 – 2.2) Yonglei Tao School of Computing and Info Systems GVSU

    2. Frameworks for Understanding Interaction • A framework is a structure that provides a context for conceptualizing something • Using frameworks to: • Structure the design process • Identify problematic areas within the design • Conceptualize the problem space as a whole

    3. Execution/Evaluation Action Cycle by Donald Norman

    4. goal execution evaluation system Execution/Evaluation Loop • user establishes the goal • formulates intention • specifies actions at interface • executes action • perceives system state • interprets system state • evaluates system state with respect to goal

    5. goal execution evaluation system Execution/Evaluation Loop • user establishes the goal • formulates intention • specifies actions at interface • executes action • perceives system state • interprets system state • evaluates system state with respect to goal

    6. goal execution evaluation system Execution/Evaluation Loop • user establishes the goal • formulates intention • specifies actions at interface • executes action • perceives system state • interprets system state • evaluates system state with respect to goal

    7. goal execution evaluation system Execution/Evaluation Loop • user establishes the goal • formulates intention • specifies actions at interface • executes action • perceives system state • interprets system state • evaluates system state with respect to goal

    8. Execution/Evaluation Action Cycle (Seven Stages of Action)

    9. Difficulties in the Process Some systems are harder to use than others Gulf of Execution user’s formulation of actions ≠ actions allowed by the system Gulf of Evaluation user’s expectation of changed system state≠ actual presentation of this state

    10. Possible Human Errors • Scenario 1 • understand system and goal • correct formulation of action • incorrect action • Scenario 2 • formulate actions incorrectly

    11. User-System Interaction

    12. O output S core U task I input Abowd& Beale Framework extension of Norman… their interaction framework has 4 parts • user • input • system • output each has its own unique languageinteraction  translation between languages problems in interaction = problems in translation

    13. Using Abowd & Beale’s Model User intentions translated into actions at the interface translated into alterations of system state reflected in the output display interpreted by the user General framework for understanding interaction • not restricted to electronic computer systems • identifies all major components involved in interaction • allows comparative assessment of systems • an abstraction

    14. Questions to Ask • Given a particular interface design, how easily can the user: • Determine the function of the device? • Determine what actions are possible? • Determine mapping from intention to physical movement? • Perform the action? • Determine whether the system is in the desired state? • Determine the mapping from system state to interpretation? • Determine what state the system is in?

    15. Coping with Complexity • Mental Models • Mapping • Semantic and Articulatory Distance • Affordances

    16. An ATM in Netherlands

    17. Mental Models • Characteristics • Unscientific • Partial • Unstable • Inconsistent • Personal

    18. What Does the User Need to Know? • What part of the product to operate • What we are supposed to do with the interface • How our interaction is constrained by the interface • What is supposed to happen when we operate the interface

    19. Mapping Arbitrary mapping Arbitrary mapping Natural mapping • Proper mapping can increase the usability of an interface • Use natural mapping whenever possible

    20. Semantic/Articulatory Distance • Semantic Distance • The distance between what people want to do and the meaning of an interface element. • Articulatory Distance • The distance between the physical appearance of an interface element and what it actually means.

    21. Affordance • Affordance is a visual clue to the function of an object • Allowing the user to make predictions about the results of user actions and help one create usable mental models • Norman considers an affordance to be a relationship between an object and a user, not a property of an object

    22. Visual Clues

    23. Recording a Show for DVR

    24. Affordances • What may be an affordance to one person may not be to another • The perception of affordance fosters usability • The affordances a user may need must be present • Affordances must not contradict the user’s expectations

    25. General Human Factor Principles for User Interface Design • Provide a good conceptual model • Make things visible • Use natural mappings • Provide feedback (Proposed By Don Norman)