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What does this number mean?. 36. Methods come … and methods go. Rescuing Babies!. Alan Marsh. Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater!. www.alanmarshelt.com. Translation. Grammar-Translation The jaw of the jackass lies in the corner of the field La plume de ma tante

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Rescuing babies

Rescuing Babies!

Alan Marsh




Translation
Translation

Grammar-Translation

The jaw of the jackass lies in the corner of the field

La plume de ma tante

Students learn grammatical rules and then apply them by translating sentences between the target language (L2) and the native language (L1)

Vocabulary is taught in long lists of isolated words



Some main disadvantages of grammar translation
Some main disadvantages of grammar -translation

  • "Ave, Caesar, morituritesalutant" or …

  • "Hail, Caesar, those who are about to die salute you"

    - Practical needs of learners?

    - Focus on reading and writing

    - Over-emphasis on translation means learner cannot become emancipated from dependence on L1



A learner s interlanguage
A learner’s interlanguage

  • A non-native speaker’s use of the foreign language at its current state of development


Noticing the gap
Noticing the gap

Between my utterances in my interlanguage and …

…how a native speaker would say/write the same thing



Noticing activity translation 1 l2 to l1 h ow would you say in your own language
Noticing ‘ah moments’Activity: Translation 1: L2 to L1How would you say in your own language …?

  • a. I’ve been to Spain b. I went to Spain last year

    Maltese:

    a. (Diga) mortSpanja b. MortSpanja s-sena l-ohra

    Italian:

    a. Sono (gia) stato/a in Spagna b. Sonoandato/a in Spagnal’annoscorso

    2 a. I’ll help you if I can b. I’d help you if I could

    Maltese

    a. Jekknistanighinek b. Kontnghinekkiekunista

    Italian

    a. Se possoaiutarti… b. Se potessi, tiaiuterei


Noticing translation 1 l2 into l1
Noticing: Translation 1 ‘ah moments’L2 into L1

Present the new language

Afterwards, write/project it up again on the board

Ask a learner to come to the board and to translate into their own language. Some questions:

Is it the same, more or less? Do the same kinds of things happen?

Is it different? If so, in what way(s)?


Noticing activity translation 1 more examples l2 into l1
Noticing ‘ah moments’Activity: Translation 1: More examples: L2 into L1

1 a. She works in London.

b. She’s working in Spain this month.

2If I have time , I’ll do it.

If I had time, I’d do it.

3 a. Have you beento Spain?

b. When did you go?

4 a. I’m here for a month

b. I’ve been here for a month.

5 a. I’ve been here for a month.

b. I’ve been here since September.

6 a. He’s reading a book.

b. He bought the book in London.


Noticing translation 2 from l1 into l2 learning maltese
Noticing: Translation 2: From L1 into L2 ‘ah moments’Learning Maltese

Grammar-Translation

The jaw of the jackass lies in the corner of the field

Rabbit stew

Opening hours

The King of Spain

Rabbit stew = Stuffattal-fenek

Opening hours = Il-hinijiettal-ftuh

The King of Spain = Ir-Re ta’ Spanja


A ‘ah moments’Mario dejjemtard!

B Nixtieq li jiġi / jasal fil-ħin, imqar għal-darba.

A X’inhu n-numrutiegħu?

B Nixtieq li kontnaf!


A ‘ah moments’Mario dejjemtard!

B Nixtieq li jiġi / jasal fil-ħin, imqar għal-darba.

A X’inhu n-numrutiegħu?

B Nixtieq li kontnaf!

A Mario’s always late!

B I wish he’d arrive on time, just for once!

A What’s his number?

B I wish I knew!


Noticing the gap1
‘Noticing’ ‘ah moments’the gap

  • Take an item of language you intend to teach

  • Insert it into a short text/dialogue

  • Translate it into the learners’ language(s)

  • Ask learners to write out a translation into English (their interlanguage)

  • Ask learners then to compare their translation with your original English text. Ask:

    - Is anything strange, or unfamiliar, to you?

    - Is there anything you would like to ask about?



The direct method no translation1
The Direct Method: No translation! ‘ah moments’

The basic premise: second language learning should be more like first language learning.  Included:

No translation between first and second languages

Little or no analysis of grammar rules


Advantages of direct method
Advantages of Direct Method ‘ah moments’

Exclusive use of L2 in the classroom encouraged thinking in L2

Emphasis on practice of new language items and language skills, rather than on language knowledge

Emphasis on spoken language; special attention given to pronunciation and intonation

Listening and speaking regarded as the basis of reading and writing: all four skills considered important


Disadvantages of direct method
Disadvantages of Direct Method ‘ah moments’

Learning your one L1 – same as learning L2 in a classroom?

No explicit grammar explanation? Enough knowledge for learners to self correct?


Audio lingual method
Audio-Lingual Method ‘ah moments’

Extension of Direct Method but based on research in linguistics and psychology

Language learning consisted of imitated behaviour

No explicit grammar instruction – everything is memorised in form

Emphasised the teaching of speaking and listening before reading and writing

Mother tongue discouraged in the classroom

Dialogues used to present new language

Focus on learning grammar – through pattern drills (stimulus and response) used as the main forms of practice


Audiolingualism an example of a pattern drill
Audiolingualism ‘ah moments’: an example of a pattern drill

  • See a film

  • Have a meal

  • Hear a singer

  • Taste a wine

  • Go to a country

  • And the present perfect forms are ……

  • I’ve seen a film

  • I’ve had a meal

  • I’ve heard a singer

  • I’ve tasted wine

  • I’ve been to a country


Voice/Teacher: It ‘ah moments’was a great film, wasn’t it?

Student transformation: Yes, the best I’ve ever seen.

Voice/Teacher repeats so student can get immediate feedback.

The exercise continues:

It was a great meal, wasn’t it?

Yes, the best I’ve ever had.

She’s a great singer, isn’t she?

Yes, the best I’ve ever heard.

It’s a great wine, isn’t it?

Yes, the best I’ve ever tasted.

It’s a great country, isn’t it?

Yes, the best I’ve ever been to .



Disadvantages of audio lingual method1
Disadvantages of Audio-Lingual Method ‘ah moments’

Theory weak: behaviourist theory held that language learning consisted of imitated behaviour; whereas we now know that humans learn language from underlying implicit knowledge of abstract rules

Language-like behaviour, but not real communicative competence

Eventual boredom

Learners had no control over content, style or pace of learning

The teacher dominates the class


Demand high can you say it better pronunciation upgrade
Demand-high: can you say it better? ‘ah moments’Pronunciation upgrade

Voice/Teacher: It was a great film, wasn’t it?

Student transformation: Yes, the best I’ve ever seen.

Voice/Teacher repeats so student can hear immediate feedback.

The exercise continues:

It was a great meal, wasn’t it?

Yes, the best I’ve ever had.

She’s a great singer, isn’t she?

Yes, the best I’ve ever heard.

It’s a great wine, isn’t it?

Yes, the best I’ve ever tasted.

It’s a great country, isn’t it?

Yes, the best I’ve ever been to .


Some advantages of stimulus response chants oral pattern drills
Some advantages of stimulus-response chants ‘ah moments’(oral pattern drills)

  • Highlights pronunciation

  • Automatiseslanguage chunks and frees the brain to deal with other bits in the whirlwind of fluency

  • Increases confidence, especially for shy, reluctant speakers

  • Is motivating: challenges learners (demand-high) and provides a change of pace

  • Is memorable



Interesting fascinating
Interesting? Fascinating! ‘ah moments’

  • Blow-up of exercise


Match the adjectives
Match the adjectives ‘ah moments’

hot fascinating good packed boiling interesting tired ancient crowded bad old fantastic awful exhausted


Gradable and extreme adjectives
Gradable and extreme adjectives ‘ah moments’

Hot

Boiling!

Good

Fantastic!

Crowded

Packed!

Interesting

Fascinating!

Tired

Exhausted!

Old

Ancient!

Bad

Awful!


Was it hot? ‘ah moments’

Hot??!! It was absolutely boiling!

Was it good?

Good??!! It was absolutely fantastic!

Was it crowded?

Crowded? It was absolutely packed!

Was it interesting?

Interesting? It was absolutely fascinating!

Were you tired?

Tired? I was absolutely exhausted!

Was it old?

Old? It was absolutely ancient!

Was it bad?

Bad? It was absolutely awful!


A ‘ah moments’

Was it hot?

Was it good?

Was it crowded?

B

Was it interesting?

Were you tired?

Was it old?

Was it bad?


The lexical approach: expand and enrich ‘ah moments’

  • Boiling

  • Sweltering ….

  • Fantastic

  • Great awesome amazing brilliant

  • Exhausted

  • Shattered worn out (knackered?)

    And what about …..?

  • Small

  • Big

  • Hungry

  • Thirsty……….

  • Dirty …..


Opposites of adjectives
Opposites of adjectives ‘ah moments’

Is it good? No, it’s really awful!

Is it easy? No, it’s really hard!

Is it near? far!

Is it cheap? expensive!

Is it warm? cold!

Is it clean? dirty!

Is it safe? dangerous!

Is it exciting? boring!


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