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Bellwork • What does it mean to “kowtow”? • To bow low • Why did the British need to kowtow to the Chinese when they first arrived? • The British wanted to trade with the Chinese and the Chinese had all the best trade goods
Remember: Spheres of Influence? • A Region (sphere) where foreigners were given special economic privileges. • They could become wealthy and powerful and CUT THE CHINESE OUT!
Who’s Sticking Up For the Chinese you ask? Remember Pu’Yi, the last Qing emperor? The Qing Empire was overthrown in 1911 (That was the FIRST Revolution)
Who Overthrew the Qing? The NATIONALISTS!! The nationalists are also called the Guomindang. They declare China a REPUBLIC!! Where regions can VOTE and send representatives to government. KIND OF LIKE US!
BUT, it wasn’t that easy The Nationalists kicked out the foreigners They fought against the warlords (other Chinese) who had created their own armies to control different regions. BUT, they started fighting amongst themselves WHY???
The Nationalists One side run by… Chiang Kai Shek He was a Capitalist He led the Army The other side run by… Mao Zedong He was a Communist
Originally these guys worked together, BUT… In 1925, Chiang took over control of the whole nationalist organization He kicked out all the Communists!
The Long March • They had to march 8,000 miles over 370 days to escape. • Mao and his followers were forced to flee the Nationalist Army • Out of 100,000 men, 7,000 survived! • During this time they won the support of the peasants in China • They took land and weapons from the warlords and gave it to the peasants
A New Enemy Arrives Nationalist and Communist armies stop fighting each other, to fight Japan. The common enemy! Japan Invades in 1931
Japan Loses WWII and leaves China in 1945 How will China lean?? Communist or Capitalist? The COLD WAR starts Communism vs. Capitalism USA vs. Soviet Union
China’s Civil War(1945-1949) • Nationalists vs. Communists • Also known as the Communist Revolution USA backs Chiang and the Nationalists The Communists are backed by the Soviet Union and 800 million peasants 1949- The Communists Win!! OUCH!!
Chiang Kai Shek fled to Taiwan Mao set up the People’s Republic of China (PRC) He set up the Chinese Republic of Taiwan (ROC) The United States continued to recognize Chiangas the real leader of China! This continued until 1971!!