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CHAPTER 2 SEAMANSHIP. BOAT MAINTENANCE. HAULING OUT. IF YOU HAUL OUT, MANY MAINTANENCE CHORES CAN BEST BE DONE AT THIS TIME. LAYING UP. Chocking or shoring up: DO NOT let the weight of the hull rest on the shoring.

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CHAPTER 2

SEAMANSHIP

BOAT MAINTENANCE

hauling out
HAULING OUT

IF YOU HAUL OUT, MANY

MAINTANENCE CHORES CAN BEST BE

DONE AT THIS TIME

laying up
LAYING UP
  • Chocking or shoring up: DO NOT let the weight of the hull rest on the shoring.
  • Adjust the shoring so that the keel absorbs the majority of the weight of the boat.
laying up1
LAYING UP
  • WINTERIZE & DRAIN WATER SYSTEM
  • FILL FUEL TANKS
  • DRY THE BILGE(S)
  • CHANGE ENGINE OIL/FILTER
  • LAYUP ENGINE PER MFG’S MANUAL
  • REMOVE BATTERIES ( STORE/FULL CHARGE)
  • REMOVE ALL PERISHABLES
laying up cont d
LAYING UP – CONT’d
  • REMOVE ALL LIQUIDS
  • REMOVE ALL CLOTHING/BEDDING
  • REMOVE ANYTHING OF VALUE
  • WASH DOWN THE INTERIOR
  • REMOVE THE FLOORBOARDS
laying up cont d1
LAYING UP – CONT’d
  • CLEAN ALL GROWTH FROM THE BOTTOM
  • WASH DOWN ENTIRE HULL WITH FRESH WATER, ESPECIALLY IF YOU STORE UNDER COVER.
keep the boat dry
KEEP THE BOAT DRY
  • CONDENSATION CAUSES “DRY ROT”
  • IF THE BOAT IS OUTSIDE:
  • Make certain covers are SECURE.
  • Check STRESS POINTS in cover for integrity.
  • Install chafing gear where needed. Bungee cords good.
  • Check the boat periodically, especially just BEFORE and immediately AFTER a storm.
boat in a boat yard
BOAT IN A BOAT YARD

Make certain that the proper people can communicate with you , at all times

bottom
BOTTOM
  • The PROBLEM: BOTTOMS BECOME FOULED BY MARINE GROWTH.
  • TWO FORMS OF MARINE LIFE
  • VEGETABLE: GRASSES, WEEDS, ALGAE & FUNGI; Congregate around waterline but may cover entire bottom.
  • ANIMAL : WORMS, BORERS, SHELL FISH, BARNACLES.
effects of bottom fouling
EFFECTS OF BOTTOM FOULING
  • SLOWS HULL SPEEDS
  • INCREASES FUEL CONSUMPTION
  • INTERFERS WITH MANEUVERABILITY
  • REDUCES OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF THE VESSEL
effects of bottom fouling1
EFFECTS OF BOTTOM FOULING
  • ACCUMULATIONS OF BARNACLES OR OYSTERS MAY MANDATE GRINDING DOWN OF THE HULL.
  • VERY EXPENSIVE, EVEN IF POSSIBLE.
  • ACCUMULATIONS OF ONLY A FEW WORMS IN A WOOD HULL CAN BE DEVASTATING.
  • ALL OTHER HULL MATERIALS ARE IMPERVIOUS TO BORERS / WORMS.
modern day bottom paints
MODERN DAY BOTTOM PAINTS

TWO IMPORTANT ELEMENTS

COPPER

MERCURY

Very effective in preventing fouling by maintaining antiseptic film over the boat bottom

disadvantages of bottom paint
DISADVANTAGES OF BOTTOM PAINT
  • GALVANIC ACTION (ELECTRONIC CORROSION) : CAUSED BY METALLIC PAINT SALTS; MERCURY / COPPER.
  • AFFECTS ALL ELECTRONICS AND THEIR PERFORMANCE.
  • DESTROYS METALLIC OBJECTS SUCH AS PROPELLERS, SHAFTS, RUDDER BLADES, STRUTS, ETC.
disadvantages of bottom paints
DISADVANTAGES OF BOTTOM PAINTS

4. ZINCS (NEVER PAINTED)must be properly attached to each component part to combat GALVANIC ACTION.

5. GREAT CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO PROPERLY MATCH THE PAINT TO YOUR BOAT’S NEEDS.

6. PAINT MANUFACTURERS HAVE DEVELOPED REASONABLE SOLUTIONS.

dry rot
DRY ROT
  • WOOD: Anywhere…and WOODEN BOATS in particular.
  • Comes and goes, almost at random.
  • GREAT MISNOMER: Dry Rot ONLY occurs in the presence of FRESH WATER MOISTURE
  • CAUSE: A FUNGUS
  • Salt water seems to discourage the fungus but will NOT cure it.
dry rot detection
DRY ROT - DETECTION
  • Distinctively BAD ODOR. Once detected, never forgotten.
  • Look in dark places; in the bilge; along the garboard strake; floor boards; all frames; any-where two pieces of wood touch each other.
  • VISIBLE EVIDENCE: Spongy spots in the wood; whitish powder, weaknesses in wood surface.
dry rot removal
DRY ROT - REMOVAL
  • PROBE with knife or pick to discover it.
  • REMOVE ALL OF IT, IMMEDIATELY! The fungus spreads like wildfire.
  • CUT IT OUT with a knife including some of the good wood, just to make certain you get it all.
  • Treating it is NOT enough.
dry rot protection
DRY ROT - PROTECTION
  • There are some reliable treatments on the market and more are appearing.
  • BEST PROTECTION: Keep fresh water, including condensation, OUT OF YOUR BOAT!
  • Keep the boat WELL VENTILATED and DRY!
galvanic action
GALVANIC ACTION
  • AN ELECTRO-CHEMICAL PROCESS whereby an ELECTRICAL CURRENT is generated when TWO DISSIMILAR METALS are connected IN ANY WAY.
galvanic action1
GALVANIC ACTION
  • PRIME CAUSE OF METALLIC DESTRUCTION IN BOATS.
  • SALT WATER BIGGEST OFFENDER
  • ONE METAL ALWAYS SACRIFICED
galvanic action2
GALVANIC ACTION
  • TWO METAL CLASSIFICATIONS
  • CURRENT FLOWS FROM THE LEAST NOBLE TO THE MOST NOBLE METAL.
  • MOST NOBLE: CURRENT FLOWS into.
  • LEAST NOBLE: CURRENT FLOWS out of.
  • Current OUT OF destroys the (LEAST NOBLE) metal.
galvanic action3
GALVANIC ACTION

MOST NOBLE ( Least susceptible and least sacrificed): Mercury, Monel, Nickel, Silicon Bronze

LEAST NOBLE ( MOST SUSCEPTIBLE TO DESTRUCTION): BRASS, ALUMINUM, ANYTHING GALVANIZED, ZINC and MAGNESIUM.

galvanic action4
GALVANIC ACTION
  • Remember: It takes two to tango! There are ALWAYS more than two dissimilar metals on any boat!
  • The PROBLEM is ALWAYS there, unless taken care of!
galvanic action5
GALVANIC ACTION
  • SOME IMPORTANT NOTES
  • YELLOW BRASS, COMPPOSED OF zinc AND copper becomes self destructing in salt water.
  • Some propellers and many INSTRUMENT CASINGS AND BRASS SCREWS are still made of Yellow Brass.
  • 3. NEVER paint an aluminum hull with COPPER paint. The hull will simply “ROT AWAY” because of GALVANIC ACTION; Aluminum being the LEAST NOBLE metal.
counteracting galvanics
COUNTERACTING GALVANICS
  • Add a SACRIFICIAL metal.
  • THE COMMON ZINC: Comes in all sizes, shapes. READILY AVAILABLE. INEXPENSIVE.
  • FREQUENT INSPECTION for signs of destruction: greyish color, pitted, pieces broken off.
  • REPLACE IMMEDIATELY with new zincs.
  • BRIGHT zincs are those NOT RESPONDING; NOT PROTECTING THE NOBLE METAL!
galvanic action6
GALVANIC ACTION

**NOTE**

NEVER---NEVER---NEVER LET ANYONE PAINT YOUR ZINCS.

Paint provides an insulating surface that prevents the zinc from doing it’s job. In the meantime, your shafts, rudder plates and posts, etc. continue to be eaten away.

electrolysis
ELECTROLYSIS

STRAY ELECTRICAL CURRENTpassing through a metal object in the boat, then into a natural ground, such as sea water.

PRIMARY EFFECT: ERODES and DESTROYS

METALLIC PARTS OF THE BOAT.

Very similar to galvanic action.

electrolysis1
ELECTROLYSIS

SOLUTION

Eliminate stray current sources in your boat and surrounding area by GROUNDING THE NEGATIVE BATTERY POLE to your ENGINE.

electrolysis2
ELECTROLYSIS
  • Metal from your boat will transfer FROM the object in an OUT-GOING current, but will NOT transfer on an incoming current.
  • Example: Stray current enters through your propeller and gets into your steering system. It will NOT transfer metal to your steering system. But it WILL TRANSFER METAL FROM your steering system on the OUTGOING SIDE.
electrolysis3
ELECTROLYSIS
  • Most of the stray currents originate from the POSITIVE battery pole (the outgoing side). When returning to the boat, they do so through the propeller shaft or outboard engine and DO NOT transfer metal.
  • MAKE ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN EVERY ELECTRICAL SOURCE IS PROPERLY GROUNDED AT ALL TIMES.
the shaft train
THE SHAFT TRAIN
  • The SHAFT TRAINinside the boat translates the POWER of the engine to the propeller outside of the boat.
  • The shaft (power) train, except V- and Hydraulic drives consists of:
    • a). Shaft Log b). Shaft c) Strut
    • d.) Strut bearing e.) Propeller.
the shaft train1
THE SHAFT TRAIN
  • Most shafts are BRONZE, MONEL or STAINLESS STEEL
  • SHAFT LOG: The fitting that the shaft goes through the hull in, from the inside out.
  • STUFFING BOX: Located on the inside end of the shaft log. Packed with a waterproof packing. Pressure is maintained on the packing by an adjustable GLAND NUT to allow for controlledleakage.
the shaft train2
THE SHAFT TRAIN
  • REMEMBER: Proper LEAKAGE is REQUIRED for shaft bearing lubrication.
  • STRUT: Supports the SHAFT on the outside of the hull.
  • STRUT BEARING: Relies on outside water for lubrication.
the shaft train3
THE SHAFT TRAIN
  • PROPELLER: Varying sizes of PITCH, DIAMETER, CIRCUMFERENCE, LEFT or RIGHT ROTATION, SHAFT-HOLE SIZE, NUMBER OF BLADES and TYPE of METALS.
  • PITCH: Distance propeller will move ahead in ONE revolution.
  • LOCK NUT: Holds the propeller on the shaft. Probably the MOST important piece of the entire TRAIN.
review questions no 1
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 1
  • The condition of dry rot is usually_______
  • a. very slow to spread.
  • b. eliminated by soaking affected areas with
  • turpentine and then coating with “spar”
  • varnish.
  • c. first indicated by a distinctive odor.
  • d. produced by an excessively dry
  • environment.
review questions no 2
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 2

2.Galvanic action_____________________

a. is of most concern when there are stray electrical currents in the area.

b. effects ferrous materials only

c. is caused by two dissimilar metals being electrically connected and immersed, either

totally or partially, in sea water.

d. is always located where the shaft is

attached to the inboard engine.

review questions no 3
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 3

3. The strut bearing____________________

a. relies on water for lubrication.

b. is stuffed with oakum and grease.

c. is located inside the hull.

d, is located where the shaft is attached to the

engine .

review questions no 4
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 4

4. The most effective way to combat “dry rot” when it is found is to ______

a. soak the affected area with turpentine

then coat with spar varnish.

b. dig out the soft spots with a knife and paint

the entire area

c. cut out the affected wood plus some good wood.

d. keep affected areas dampened with fresh water.

review questions no 5
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 5

5. A good method to combat galvanic action is to ________

a. use the same metal throughout the boat.

b. electrically connect dissimilar metals immersed in sea water.

c. eliminate all stray electrical currents

d. add a sacrificial metal.

review questions no 6
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 6

6. What is used to keep the propeller on the shaft?

a. locking ring

b. a lock nut

c. a slot

d. a collar

review questionsnp 7
REVIEW QUESTIONSNP. 7

7. The two types of marine growth are__

a. barnacles and moss

b. oysters and grass

c. worms and oysters

d. vegetable and animal

review questions no 8
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO.8

8. The primary effect of marine growth on the hull is ________________

a. to slow it’s speed

b. little or none

c, not well known

d. negligible

review questions no 9
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 9

9. The proper way to store a boat is to__

a. always let the weight rest on the shoring.

b. never let the weight rest on the shoring

c. never shore the boat

d. never cover the boat

review questions no 10
REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 10

10. In galvanic action, the current flows from the _____ to the ____metal.

a. less noble/more noble

b. more noble/less noble

c. negative/positive

d. positive/negative