PUNCTUATION!! Review of end marks, commas, ellipsis, dash, and spelling rules.
END MARKS.!? • An end mark is a mark of punctuation placed at the end of a sentence. The three kinds of end marks are the period, the questionmark, and the exclamation point. • Use a period at the end of a statement or declarative sentence. • Example: • __________________________________________________________________
Use a period or an exclamationpoint at the end of a request or command, an imperative sentence. • Example: __________________________________________________________________ • Use an exclamationpoint at the end of an exclamatory sentence. • Example: __________________________________________________________________
Use a questionmark at the end of a question, or interrogative sentence. • Example: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • Commas: A comma is generally used to separate words or a group of words so that the meaning of a sentence is clear. • Words in a series are separated by a comma. • Example: • Barbecue, hammock, canoe, and moccasin are four of the words that the English Language owes to the American Indians. • You Try
Phrases in a series are separated by a comma. • Example: • Checking his shoelaces, fastening his helmet strap, and positioning his kneepads, Tommy prepared for the skateboarding competition. You try In your reading, you will find that sometimes the comma is omitted before a conjunction such as and, or, or nor, when it joins the last two items in a series. Sometimes a comma is still necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear. Notice how the comma affects the meaning in the following examples.
Luanne, Zach and I are going riding. (Is Luanne being addressed, or is she going riding?) • Luanne, Zach, and I are going riding. (Three people are going riding.) But…If all of the items are joined by and, or, or nor, do not use a comma to separate them. See if you can write an example. _____________________________________________________________________ Use commas to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. You Try: _____________________________________________________________________
Compound Sentences: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet) when it joins independent clauses in a compound sentence. • I enjoyed The King and I, but Oklahoma! is still my favorite musical. • The water is cold, yet it looked inviting. • You can remove the conjunction and change the comma to a ; semi-colon with two independent clauses too You Try: ____________________________________________________________________
Use commas to set off nonessen6tial participial phrases and nonessential subordinate clauses. • Example: • This small turtle, crossing the street slowly, was in danger. (The main idea of the sentence remains This small turtle was in danger.) • Harvard College, founded in 1636, is the oldest college in the United States. (The main idea remains, Harvard College is the oldest college in the United States.) With the removed section, the main idea does remain the same. (nonessential) You Try: __________________________________________________________________________________________
CAPITALIZATION • Capitalize the first word in every sentence. • Capitalize proper nouns. _______________. • Capitalize the first word in a quote, when it is a complete sentence. • Example: • “This oil tanker is so big,” said the tour guide, “that three football fields could fit on its deck.” Ellipsis… Use the ellipsis when quoting material and you want to leave out some words. Use the ellipsis to indicate a pause in the flow of a sentence, especially in a quote.
Dash- • Use a dash to indicate an abrupt break in thought or speech. • Example: • Ms. Alonzo –she just left- will be one of the judges of the talent show. Place the dashes where they should be in the following sentences. (Be prepared to come up and share.) 1. 2. 3.
SPELLING RULES: • ie or ei? Learn the rhyme, then learn the common exceptions to the rule. I before e except after c, or when sounded like a, as in neighbor and weigh! • Words that follow the rule: • Achieve, believe, brief, chief, die, friend (ie) • Ceiling, conceive, receive, receipt (ei) • Eight, eighty, freight, sleigh (A sound) Exceptions: caffeine, either, foreign, forfeit, height, leisure, neither, protein, their, weird, species, ancient, science. Can you think of any exceptions to this rule? _________________________________________
Words ending in cede, ceed, and sede. • The only English word ending in sede is supersede. • Three words end in ceed: proceed, exceed, and succeed. • You can remember these three words by thinking of the following sentence; If you proceed to exceed the speed limit, you will succeed in getting a ticket. • All other words ending with the “seed” sound are spelled with cede, as in precede, recede, secede. ADDING PREFIXES: Keep the spelling of the root word the same, and add the prefix. co+operate=cooperate mis+spell=misspell dis+appeal=disappear
Adding suffixes: • When the suffix you are adding begins with a vowel, like –ing, er, ed, or y, double the final consonant. • Mud+y=muddy put+ing=putting begin+ing=beginning Exceptions: Don’t double the final letter if the word ends in s, w, x, or y. (buses, waxy, employer) Don’t double the final consonant before the suffix –ist if the word has more than 1 syllable (violinist, guitarist) When a word ends in a vowel and y, keep the y. When a word ends in a consonant and y, change the y to i if the suffix doesn’t begin with i. Keep the y if the suffix you are adding begins with i like –ing.