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  1. NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”)NETHERLANDSMODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Part Three Project structures in fourty-three steps

  2. 1. Summary of typical project structures Project structures are set up in a critical order of sequence (numbers can vary) SOCIAL STRUCTURES 200 Health clubs 200 Tank commissions 35 Well commissions 1 Central committee controlling project management Three tiered social security structure FINANCIAL STRUCTURES Local money system Interest-free, cost-free, cooperative micro-credit system PRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES 3 production units for the manufacture of items from gypsum-based composites 35 units for the production of mini-briquettes for cooking purposes 400 agreements for the production of biomass for mini-briquettes Cooperatives for installation and maintenance Others, too many to name SERVICE STRUCTURES Water : 200 drinking water points; 35 boreholes,wells; 10.000 water harvesting systems 10.000 complete ecological dry sanitation systems; sanitation in schools clinics and public places. Fully sustaionable three-tiered structure for the recycling of waste. 200 study rooms with photovoltaic lighting; PV lighting in schools and clinics. 20.000 high-efficiency cookers (elimination of smoke hazards) 200 primary schools; 35 secondary schools, 1 trades school; 1 propedeuse institute 200 nursing facilities; 35 doctors’ practices with medicine distribution points; 1 local hospital; 35 bicycle ambulances. Cooperative purchasing groups Cooperative insurance facility

  3. Typical social structures 200 Health clubs 200 Tank commissions 35 Well commissions 1 Central committee controlling project management Three tiered social security structure

  4. 200 Hygiene education clubs Hygiene education structures. • (200) Voluntary Community Health Clubs • hygiene education • creation of platforms for women • basic course for health clubs provided Other health related structures. • inspection of the individual sanitation and water supply systems. • Water quality monitoring. • Hygiene education should part of the school curriculum at all levels. • Schools will be supplied with appropriate quality clean drinking water and proper sanitation systems. Capacitation workshops for the health clubs and for hygiene education in schools. to produce the following structures: • a) A system coordination structure • b) A materials structure • c) A methodical structure • d) A communications structure • e) A structure at local Tank Commission level

  5. Social structures : (200) tank commissions

  6. Social structures: (35) well commissions

  7. Social structures : central committee (35 members) and management (5-7 appointees) Some tasks: • Ownership and management of the central project offices and depot. • Coordination of ownership and management of decentralised project structures. • Coordination and management of all issues for which neither the tank commissions nor the well commissions are directly responsible. • Liaison at project level with, and support for, the local social, financial, service, and productive structures set up. • Settlement of project-related conflicts. • The central project management is responsible by default for any project-related service or obligation for which no specific provision is available in the project organisation.

  8. Social structures : social security Two areas: Local money system Formal money system Three levels: Tank commission Well commission Project level

  9. Financial structures Purpose : to create a cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free local economic environment where private initiative and genuine competition are free to flourish. • Local money systems • Interest-free micro-credit systems • Cooperative group purchasing facilities FINANCIAL LEAKAGE IS BLOCKED

  10. Financial structures:The local money systems • What’s money for? Money as a commodity. Money as a means of exchange. • Three levels of operation. Tank commission level. Well commission level. Central management level. • Start-up. Workshop. How much do we start with? Registration of transactions. Statistics. Costs : mostly under the local money system itself

  11. Illustration of the local money structures.

  12. The operation of a LETS transaction

  13. Financial structures:Interest-free micro-credit systemsNo formal money costs • The cooperative local development fund. • Where does the money come from? a) Part of the initial seed money until it is needed for the project. b) Seed loan repayments. c) Micro-credit repayments. d) The long term maintenance fund. e) The system capital replacement fund which will be built up after the ten years' seed loan has been fully repaid. • Operates at three levels. • Where are the decisions made? • How is the money used? • Costs borne under the local money system. • How is the system created?

  14. Micro-credit structures:Illustration of typical development over ten years(Each family at least Euro 1500 based on an average 2 year payback period)

  15. Micro-credit structures:How the cooperative local development fund is created.

  16. Micro-credit structures:Illustration of the interest-free loan cycle.

  17. Financial structures:cooperative purchasing groups Insurance cooperatives. Self-terminating purchasing groups: - three possible levels • some examples: (solar home systems) (water heating systems) (cooperative transport and farming facilities) (locally powered energy generating systems) Support from the project structures.

  18. Productive structures 3 production units for the manufacture of items from gypsum-based composites 35 units for the production of mini-briquettes for cooking purposes 400 agreements for the production of biomass for mini-briquettes Cooperatives for installation and maintenance Others, too many to name, in the minds of the people

  19. 3 productive structures for items made from gypsum-based composites Gypsum composites. - a good economic return. - little capital-, and inventory investment or outlay. - environmentally friendly, since rest materials can be 100% recycled. - non-critical and require little energy for manufacture. - can be technically and mechanically comparable with some existing synthetic materials. - widely available as natural raw material. - easily be adapted to innumerable uses and applications. - Simple to integrate with existing machinery and working methods. - produce no deformation or expansion. - good colour properties. - require no special, expensive moulds. - are easy to finish and easy to repair. - require no high pre-investment or production costs. - are competitive in price with synthetic materials. - can be re-used. - can be pressed, extruded, sprayed, as rolled. - can be sawn, drilled, sandblasted, glued, ground, painted, polished, etc.

  20. 3 productive structures for items made from gypsum-based composites Some examples of gypsum-based products useful for project structures: • water tanks and containers. • tanks for toilet systems. • toilets, san-plats, toilet seats. • high-efficiency stoves. • vertical gardens. • building support structures. • roof and wall insulation and waterproofing. • tiles. • plaques for footpaths, bicycle paths, and markets. Items made locally for local use using local materials can be built, sold, installed and maintained under the local money system without any formal money cost.

  21. 35 structures for the production of mini-briquettes for cooking stoves • One structure at each well-commission level • Each structure services about 1500 people or 300 families. • Requirement about 3.5 kg per family per day: 1000 kg per day or 7000 kg per week. 1400 kg for each of 5 working days. 2800 0.5 kg mini-briquettes per working day. 350 0.5 kg mini-briquettes per working hour. • Recipes; waste recycling.

  22. 400 structures for growing bio-mass for mini-briquettes • Typically 2 contracts for each tank-commission area. • Typically 7 tank-commission areas with 14 contracts supplying each mini-briquette production facility. • Typically 2000kg per month (24000kg per year) under each bio-mass contract. Usable products: Crop wastes. Tree and forest wastes. Purpose-grown bio-mass crops. Locally recycled materials not needed for other purposes.

  23. Productive structures:Installation and maintenance cooperatives All project structures are installed, operated, and maintained under the local money system. Formal money is needed only for spare parts which cannot be made locally. Reserves for spare parts are paid into the Cooperative Local Development Fund. Cooperatives are set up during workshops. 3 administrative levels and/or task specialisation. THE MORE LOCAL THE MAINTENANCE THE BETTER

  24. Some other productive structures:Dream the possibilities ! Within each project area: Local economic environment with powerful instruments: local money system. interest-free, “cost-free” micro-credit systems. Some examples: local radio station. local milk shops for the pasteurisation and distribution of milk. cooperative storage facilities for food, especially for food for local consumption. seed bank. plant nurseries. draining and re-structuring of market squares and public places. sports clubs. theatre groups. local consultants’ offices. communications centres. reforestation. management of parks and reserves.

  25. Service structures Water : 200 drinking water points; 35 boreholes,wells; 10.000 water harvesting systems 10.000 complete ecological dry sanitation systems; sanitation in schools clinics and public places. Fully sustaionable three-tiered structure for the recycling of waste. 200 study rooms with photovoltaic lighting; PV lighting in schools and clinics. 20.000 high-efficiency cookers (elimination of smoke hazards) 200 primary schools; 35 secondary schools, 1 trades school; 1 propedeuse institute 200 nursing facilities; 35 doctors’ practices with medicine distribution points; 1 local hospital; 35 bicycle ambulances. Cooperative purchasing groups Cooperative insurance facility

  26. Drinking water supply : description Three levels: 200 Water points : 25 litres per person per day. Operated by 200 tank commissions. 33 Wells/boreholes : back-up 25 litres per person per day. Operated by 35 well commissions. 10.000 water harvesting systems at household level, up to 25 litres/person/day with Moringa sand filter back-up for filtering for drinking purposes.

  27. Service structures : drinking water, 35 wells

  28. Service structures : drinking water, 220 water points

  29. Water supply : other • Schools, clinics and public places. • Water harvesting systems at household level. • Moringa sand filters. • Small-scale water harvesting for market gardens and orchards. • Recycling urine with grey water for vertical gardens. and commercial gardens. • Irrigation facilities are usually NOT provided. • Food and water security.

  30. Sanitation structures 10.000 Homes: Description of complete family facility. Dry composting eco-sanitary systems. Disposal of urine Disposal of faeces. Disposal of grey water. Vertical gardens. Food security. Schools. Clinics. Public places.

  31. Ecological sanitation

  32. Principles of an integrated waste recycling system • (a) Recycling at the lowest possible level, starting with the individual user. • (b) Recycling at a second level should also be done as late as possible during the composting cycle to reduce the volume of material handled. • (c) The whole structure should be operated within the local (LETS) system. • (d) Capital investment for recycling equipment, transport and storage a priority for Micro-credit loans. • (e) "Dirty" work will be better paid than "clean" work in the LETS systems. • (f) Waste recycled within the project area TO AVOID leakage of formal money from the system. • (g) Lucrative job possibilities are created within the system. • (h) Export and sale of selected non-organic solid waste through the recycling centres for formal currency so micro-credits for re-cycling operation can be repaid. • (i) Selected non-organic solid waste products will treated locally and recycled as raw material for local artisan industries. • (j) Recycling of special industrial and medical wastes to be addressed separately. • (k) The use of throw-away waste products without value added, such as product packaging, is discouraged. • (l) Repairable goods will be repaired at project level under the local money LETS system set up. • (m) Spare parts not locally available will be charged in formal money at their original imported formal money price.

  33. The elements of the waste recycling system • The sanitation and rubbish collection package includes the following elements: • 1) Dry composting toilet tanks made from gypsum composite. • 2) Toilet tanks for urine made from gypsum composites. • 3) Grey water tanks made from gypsum composites and basic grey water treatment facilities. • 4) Locally made compost bins for organic waste other than urine, faeces and grey water. • 5) A system to collect and where necessary store the compost from 1) and 4), urine from 2) and grey water (from 3) of users who have no land or garden on which to recycle their own waste. • 6) A system to collect and recycle non-organic solid waste through recycling centres.

  34. Waste recycling structures

  35. Service structures : photovoltaic lighting for study purposes 200 study rooms 200 photovoltaic lighting sets for study rooms Television and computers for study – usually excluded Photovoltaic lighting (eventually TV and computers) in schools. Photovoltaic lighting and refrigeration in clinics. Facilities for evening classes.

  36. Service structures : elimination of smoke hazards in homes • The biggest killer of all. • High-efficiency cookers • Construction of mini-briquettes. • Bio-mass for mini-briquettes. • Conservation. • Kyoto.

  37. Service structures : educationAnything which can be done under the local money systems is possible. • Use of local money systems. • Use of gypsum composites production units. • Use of local building materials and techniques. • Payment of teachers.

  38. Service structures : education • Schools and three-tiered project structures. • Up to 200 primary schools. • Up to 35 secondary schools. • Central trades and crafts school. • Further education (propedeuse for University). • Millennium goals. • Girls and boys. • Women’s education.

  39. Service structures : health • Prevention and cure. • Better health for all: low technology, locally executed non-industrialised initiatives. hygiene education courses for women and in schools, clean drinking water supply. varied food supply. proper sanitation facilities. recycling of wastes. proper aeration of homes - elimination of smoke. drainage and the elimination of stagnant waters. simple, intelligent locally applied means to combat flies and mosquitoes.

  40. Service structures : health • Hygiene education. • Health and drinking water supply. • Health and sanitation. • Insects and vermin. • Health and smoke elimination. • Health and nutrition. • Curative health structures.

  41. Service structures : health • 200 nursing points at tank commission level. • 35 doctors’ points at well commission level. • 35 medicine distribution points. • Project area hospital. • Other specialist activities. • Bicycle ambulance system. • Local manufacture of medicines. • Mine clearance. • Ecological hazards.

  42. Service structures : remember these as well • 10.000 rainwater harvesting structures. • Reforestation and ecology. • Women’s rights. • Food security. • Meeting Millennium Goals

  43. NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”)NETHERLANDSMODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTSSchoener 50,1771 ED WieringerwerfNetherlands.Tel. 0031-(0)227-604128Website : www.flowman.nl