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‘Good Practices’ Related to Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation. Consultation with Bilateral Development Agencies on Good Practices – Drinking Water, Sanitation and Human Rights – May 20-21, 2010, Lisbon. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Good Practices.

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‘Good Practices’ Related to Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation


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    1. ‘Good Practices’ Related to Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation Consultation with Bilateral Development Agencies on Good Practices – Drinking Water, Sanitation and Human Rights – May 20-21, 2010, Lisbon Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

    2. Good Practices Case i : India - Urban water supply and sanitation in Bangalore Case ii : Senegal - Rural water supply and sanitation

    3. Outreach to the urban poor by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Project with Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India <Scope of Works> • Construction of water supply and sewerage facilities • Management improvement • Slum development Served Population : 7 million Present supply : 900 MLD 100km WTP Intake Water supply system in Bangalore (Cauvery Water Supply Scheme)

    4. Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India

    5. Scale of the project Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India

    6. Outreach to the urban poor: From pilot to scale-up Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India [Original condition] • 10 to 15 % of city's population live in slums. • Total number of slums is over 500. • 70% of slums do not have satisfactory access to water and sanitation. • Significant service level gap: Crowded public taps, long time for fetching water, high cost to buy water from private vendors, health risk, etc. Pilot Project by BWSSB with AusAID in three slums (2000-02) Scale-up by Japanese financial cooperation

    7. Innovative approach in the pilot project Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India • Property document / lease deed required • Application for new connection at BWSSB offices only • High connection charge : Rs. 1,800 (USD 36) • High minimum tariff : Rs. 105 (USD 2.10) per month Before • Property documents not required; ration card or voter’s ID Card is acceptable • Application available at door step simply • Connection charge reduced to Rs. 550 (US$ 11), allowing installment payment, based on Willingness to Pay survey • Minimum tariff reduced to Rs. 73 (USD 1.46) per month and new tariff slab at lowest consumption reduced from 15 m3 to 8 m3 After

    8. Scale up with Japanese yen loan Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India • Cover 360 slums in the city with individual/ shared metered connections • Sewage connection and disposal • Rs. 400 million (US$ 8 Million) allocated for capital investment • Partnership with NGOs and CBOs through Social Development Unit of BWSSB • Participation of slum dwellers including women • Inclusive implementing structure • 120 slums will be taken up in first phase (2010) • Balance will be taken up thereafter (2010-2011)

    9. Inclusive implementing structure Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India • Project Coordinating Committee • - Senior level representative from institutions covering diversified stakeholders • Urban Development Department • Housing Department • Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board • Bangalore City Corporation • Karnataka Slum Clearance Board • NGO representatives • CBO / WATSAN Committee representatives (woman representative should be included) WATSAN Committee - Formulated in each slum to be in charge of operation and maintenance of water supply and sewerage facilities

    10. Implementation process of slum development component Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India • Preparation Stage • Assignment of Social Development Unit staff • Training • Stakeholder partnership building • Selection of consultants • Planning Stage • Preparation of detailed implementation plan • Project Coordinating Committee • Selection of partner NGOs • MOU between BWSSB, NGO and community • Social survey of slums • Follow-up Stage • Establishment of billing system and revenue collection • Proper maintenance and reporting from WATSAN committee to BWSSB • Execution Stage • Setup of WATSAN committee • Feasibility assessment • Detailed design • Tender, contract, construction • Commissioning • Collection of connection charge • Trial run

    11. Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India

    12. Case i Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India

    13. Inclusive Community Participation by the Project on the Safe Water and Support of Community Activities with Ministry of Hydraulics in Senegal Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal <Scope of Works> Construction of water supply systems Improvement of maintenance system Support for sanitation improvement and awareness activities Promotion of community activities Hand pump Piped water supply system with electric pump

    14. Institutional Framework • Community participation through ASUFOR (Association des Usagers de Forage) under the National Policy (PEPAM 2015:Programme d’eau potable et d’assainnisment du millenaire) • Operation and maintenance by community through ASUFOR • Water sale by volume • Transparent management of water supply systems Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal • Before 1996 • O&M by the state • Lump sum payment of water fees • No transparency • No bank account • No management documents • Conflicts between users and leaders • Frequent interruptions of system operation due to lack of fuel • After 1996 • Sharing of maintenance and renewal cost by the state and the users • Water sale by volume • Possibility to apply for a credit • Involvement of the private sector in the management and maintenance of stations

    15. Facilities Improvement Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal • Financial assistance (grant aid) • Installation and rehabilitation of water supply facilities (120 locations) • Hand pumps / Piped water supply systems with electric pumps • Strengthening of repair centers • Providing access to safe water for more than 350,000 villagers

    16. Capacity Development for ASUFOR Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 1 Establishment of maintenance system Proper management of committees Appropriate use of water Stable safe water supply Activity 4 Community Development

    17. ACTIVITY 1 : Technical Maintenance Training and retraining of borehole operators Construction of 3 training centres Installation of water meters - Preparation of specific technical documents and operation guidelines for each station - Inventory of all the maintenance companies in the region - Conclusion of 16 maintenance contracts between the ASUFORs and local private companies

    18. ACTIVITY 2 : Organizing the Users General assembly Executive committee Executive board - Acceptance of water sale by volume and saving in preparation for repair - Involvement of the various categories of users and strengthening of ethnic intermingling and social cohesion - Democracy and transparency in management (election of board and committee members every 2 years, accounting audit, two bank accounts for daily operation cost and reserve for repair respectively, etc.)

    19. ACTIVITY 3 : Appropriate use of water Operation guidelines for groundwater monitoring Water saving irrigation techniques Sensitisation on hygiene and water related diseases - Improvement of hygiene and awareness of the risk of water related diseases - Use of water saving irrigation techniques like drip Irrigation - Monitoring of groundwater resources: quality and quantity

    20. ACTIVITY 4 : Community development Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal Market gardening Poultry houses Cattle feeding Forage growing - Introduction of income generating activities, contributing to poverty reduction and empowerment of the communities

    21. Inclusive approach to community Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal • Project manuals and documents are translated into local languages. • Picture-story show and audio-visual aids are used. • Equal involvement of all existing ethnic groups is promoted. • Inclusion of users living outside the limits of the water supply system’s network

    22. Involvement of women Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal • Social and gender survey at project sites • Willingness of participation by women was confirmed. • Training to government staff on gender consideration • Meeting time, place and timing conducive to women’s participation • Half of ASUFOR executive board members and 1/3 of executive committee members should be women. • Attendance rate of women were monitored. • Participation to discussion and decision making • Improvement of transparency • Enhancement of information disclosure

    23. Access to sanitation Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal • Awareness campaign for • Necessity of using safe water • Effect of unhygienic condition and polluted water • Sanitation • Appropriate method of water storage and usage at household • Keeping hygienic living environment, etc. Construction of latrine

    24. Capacity development of all levels • Strengthening of government staff’s capacity in ASUFOR animation through training, OJT, coordination, etc. • Establishment and strengthening of ASUFOR at community level • Training of focal points for hygiene education • For latrine construction, local contractors capacity are improved and village people get household latrines constructed without any form of financial support • Capacity building for area mechanics • Establish inclusive network among ASUFOR, administrative agencies and private sectors • Donor coordination Central Government Local branches Local centers Communities

    25. Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal

    26. Case ii Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Senegal

    27. THANK YOU Contact: Shigeyuki MATSUMOTO Matsumoto.Shigeyuki@jica.go.jp