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DRUG UNIT. DRUG PROJECT . Develop a lesson on a particular drug Information must be as thorough as possible Must include: Written outline – typed Bibliography – minimum 4 sources 2 sources must be from something other than the internet - NO WIKIPEDIA

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drug project
DRUG PROJECT
  • Develop a lesson on a particular drug
  • Information must be as thorough as possible
  • Must include:
    • Written outline – typed
      • Bibliography – minimum 4 sources
        • 2 sources must be from something other than the internet - NO WIKIPEDIA
      • Written outline - must be typed (the report needs to be labeled clear, ex./ brain chemistry and then information)
    • Oral Presentation
      • Outline needed for the class (handout)
      • Information – MUST BE DETAILED!!!!!!!!!!!!!
        • History- origin
        • Definitions and terms (can include current events, newspaper incidents, new findings, real or not real stories)
        • Effects of the drug on the body (what it does)
          • Uses and abuses / medical – past and present
        • Addiction (physical-psychological etc…),
        • Withdraw
        • Drug interaction (what occurs if combined with other drugs),
        • ***BRAIN CHEMISRTY (how does it change the brain)
        • Schedule of drug and punishment of law
      • Visual – power point with graphics, video clips ect…..something to bring interest to the presentation
    • 5 test questions with answers
topic choices
TOPIC CHOICES
  • Marijuana
  • Crystal Meth
  • Heroin/Morphine
  • Tobacco
  • Cocaine/Crack
  • Prescription/OTC Drugs ( Valium, oxycodone, pain relievers, sedatives)
  • Ritalin and Stimulants
  • Alcohol /Depressants/Oxycontin
  • OTC Drugs (Coricidin, Robotussin, Caffeine, Inhalants…)
  • Hallucinogens, LSD/PCP (Last Choice)
otc definitions define each term for homework
OTC DefinitionsDefine each term for homework
  • Drug
  • Penicillin
  • Sulfa Drug
  • Antisera
  • Vasodilators
  • Medicine
  • Tetracycline
  • Vaccine
  • Digitalis
  • Antiarrythmics
  • Antibiotic
  • Topical Antibiotic
  • Antibody
  • Diuretics
  • Preventive Agents
chapter 23 drugs as medicines
Chapter 23 Drugs as Medicines
  • How have drugs significantly affected the lives of Americans?
  • Drugs make our world a better place.
  • Today is a time for QUICK CURES.
    • A pill or potion remedy exists for every conceivable ache or pain.
the role of medicines
The Role of Medicines
  • Drug
    • Any substance , other than food , that when taken into the body alters the structure or function of the body in some way.
  • Medicines
    • Kind of drug that is taken into or applied to the body to prevent or cure a disease or disabling condition.
medicines are classified into 4 broad categories
Medicines are classified into 4 Broad Categories

Categories:

  • Prevent Disease
  • Fight Pathogens (microorganisms that enter the body and attack its cells and tissues)
  • Relieve Pain
  • Helps the heart regulate blood pressure
drugs that fight
Drugs that Fight
  • Antibiotic –
    • drug that microscopic organisms produce (penicillin and tetracycline)
  • Penicillin – Penicillin Video
    • antibiotics that kills a wide variety of bacteria
  • Tetracycline –
    • antibiotics used to treat infections
  • Topical antibiotics –
    • treats minor cuts, burns and abrasions
  • Sulfa Drugs –
    • are germ killers that are made from certain chemical substance (man made)
drugs that prevent disease
Drugs that Prevent Disease
  • Vaccines – preparation, containing weakened or dead pathogens that cause a particular disease. It is given to prevent one from contracting that particular disease.
  • Antibody – a protein substance in the blood that acts against poisons or the bacteria that produces them
  • Antisera – body fluids that contain antibodies and act more quickly than vaccines
drugs that affect the heart and regulate blood pressure
Drugs that affect the HEART and regulate Blood Pressure
  • 5 Main Kinds
    • Digitalis – increase the force of contraction in the heart.
      • Cuts down the number of heartbeats and controls irregular heart beats
    • Diuretics – helps to relieve the body of water and sodium. (good after heart failure)
    • Vasodilators – dilate the veins and arteries to increase blood and oxygen flow.
    • Antiarrhythmics – given in cases of arrhythmia – any disturbance in the rate or rhythm of the heart.
    • Preventive agents – used to prevent conditions
      • Ex./ high blood pressure, blood clots, fatty deposits in blood
drugs that affect the nervous system
Drugs that affect the Nervous System
  • ****Most widely used and abused drugs? WHY?
  • Alters moods and feelings
  • 6 Major groupings
  • Analgesic– relieves and stops pain
  • Antidepressants – relieves emotional depression
  • Stimulants– prevent sleep, reduce distractibility in hyperactive children and suppress appetite
  • Hypnotics – give relief to moderate or mild anxiety and tension and aids in sleep
  • Barbiturates – used for many of the same reasons as hypnotics as well as used to prevent various types of seizures
  • Tranquilizers – relieve anxiety and tension (hypnotics) as well as to relieve insomnia due to the anxiety and tension.
  • A 7th group is called Hallucinogens, but it requires special identification. This group alters consciousness and there is no generally accepted medical use.
slide12

Antacids

    • May contain aspirin and can further stomach irritation.
      • Prevention – eat slowly, chew food well, do not over eat, avoid foods that irritate your stomach.
  • Antihistamines – cold remedies
  • What is the major problem with liquid cold remedies?
  • Correct measurement, ½ of adult dosage for children, weight difference
medicines in the body
Medicines in the Body
  • Side Effects – a reaction other than the one intended.
  • Additive Interaction – medicines work together in a positive way.
    • Example/ Anti-inflammatory + muscle relaxant to treat joint pain
  • Synergistic Effect – the interaction of two or more medicines that results in a greater effect than when the medicines are taken independently.
  • Antagonistic Interaction – the effect of a medicine is cancelled or reduced when taken with another medicine.
    • Example/ Anti-rejection meds. (transplants) and insulin. Insulin may be decreased.
  • Tolerance – body becomes use to the effect
  • Withdrawal – when a person stops using a medicine or other substance to which he or she has a physiological dependence.
    • Examples of symptoms – nervousness, insomnia, severe nausea, headaches, vomiting, chills, and cramps
effects of the drug in the body depends on
Effects of the drug in the body depends on:
  • Type of drug taken
  • Method by which the drug was taken
    • Swallowed – starts to dissolve in stomach before going into the bloodstream (absorbed through the walls to the bloodstream)
      • Liver processes all food and chemicals so to be used or eliminated
    • Intravenously (in the veins) or Intramuscularly (in the muscle)
      • Injection causes immediate entrance into the bloodstream and then to the liver.
drugs interact not only with one another but with food as well
Drugs interact not only with one another but with food as well.
  • Presence of food:
    • In the digestive system can slow down or speed up the time it takes a drug to go through the digestive tract to the site in the body where it is needed.
    • Take on an empty stomach or just before meals or with meals.
    • Can contain natural and sometimes added chemicals (reaction can be severe)
    • Can speed up absorption but more often interferes with it.
    • Example:
      • Tetracycline with dairy products (calcium in milk and cheese), impairs the body’s capacity to absorb the antibiotic.
      • Acidity in soft drinks and fruit juices causes some drugs to dissolve quickly in the stomach instead of intestines, where they will be readily available.
slide16

Refer to page 516

  • Being Health Literate: Using Medicines Safely
    • Ask Questions.
    • Read the Label.
    • Practice Safety.
    • Become a partner in your health care.
slide17

Extra Credit : Find an article on a medicine breakthrough, summarize and report to the class.

  • Homework –
    • Define: Chemical Name, Generic Name,

and Trade Name

--Medicine Cabinet Review

Write down the medication

OTC/Prescription

Exp./date

drug tolerance and dependence
Drug Tolerance and Dependence
  • Tolerance
  • Dependence
  • Addiction
  • Withdrawal
  • Physical – withdrawal occurs
  • Psychological – mentally dependent
label reading
Label Reading
  • Chemical Name

- A chemical formula for chemist

Ex./ Aspirin

Acetylsalicylic Acid - C9H8O4

  • Generic Name

- Universal Name - aspirin

  • Trade Name
    • Manufacturer / brand name
    • Ex./ Bayer is different by manufacturer
label reading1
Label Reading

BACK

FRONT

Ingredients

Do not use if protective seal is broken

Acetaminophen

Purpose of Medicine

PAIN-OFF provides temporary relief from simple headaches

Warning : Keep out of reach of children. If pregnant or nursing consult a physician before use.

Usual Adult Dosage: 2 tablets four times a day as needed.

PAIN OFF

Name of Product

For fast relief

of minor pain

Directions for safe use

Expiration Date

Control number

EXP 10/01

NO.QT 123

Medi-Labs, 612 Medi-Lab Way, Mediville, NJ

200 tablets

235 mg each

Name and address of manufacturer

Exact measurements of package contents

aspirin acetylsalicylic acid
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
  • The most widely used non –prescription drug in the US
  • Regular dosage is an excellent pain reliever (2 Tablets)
  • High doses (10-24 per day) an anti-inflammatory agent
    • arthritis patients
  • High doses can cause stomach irritation
    • Drink full glass of water
  • Allergic reactions (may not realize it)
    • Asthma attack
    • Symptoms – wheezing, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing
  • Can prevent vitamin C from getting into cells
    • Vitamins can intensify and prolong the effects of aspirin
      • Symptoms: ringing in the ears
      • Salicylate poisoning
  • Can interfere with blood clotting.
  • Acetaminophen – taken if sensitive to aspirin because it does not contain salicylic acid