Representation organization in ltm
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Representation/organization in LTM. Typical empirical testing paradigm: propositional verification task – rt to rose is flower, vs. rose is plant.

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Representation organization in ltm

Representation/organization in LTM

Typical empirical testing paradigm: propositional verification task – rt to rose is flower, vs. rose is plant.

Set Theoretical Models: categorical – hierarchical storage. Along with items, feature list are stored. Decisions are made based on comparisons of feature lists – feature overlap. Support found in some vs. all comparisons and most sub vs. immediate super. Problem with atypical category members (whale is mammal vs. whale is animal).


Categorical hierarchical model of memory
Categorical/Hierarchical Model of Memory

  • Some birds are robins vs. all birds are robins

  • Crow-bird; crow-animal whale-mammal; whale-animal (atypical problem)


Representation organization in ltm1
Representation/organization in LTM

  • Semantic feature comparison model: two stage process – 1. General feature overlap; 2. (if necessary) comparison of defining features

  • Characteristic vs. defining features

  • Generally solves atypical category member problem

  • Problem raised: cognitive economy


Representation organization in ltm

Encode comparison

Low overall similarity (rock is bird)

High overall similarity (robin is bird)

Compare all features

Intermediate similarity (ostrich is bird)

Compare just defining features

Mismatch

Match

“Yes”

“No”


Representation in ltm
Representation in LTM

  • Network model (Collins & Qullian): retains categorical – hierarchical organization, but only unique features stored with each item. Items assumed to retain features of superordinate category members. Spreading activation key concept. Return of atypical category member problem.

  • Modified semantic network model (Collins & Loftus). – removes hierarchical assumption. Distance represents semantic relatedness




Representation in ltm1
Representation in LTM

  • Propositional network model: Memory composed of interconnect network of fundamental propositions

  • Proposition: smallest unit of information that can be judged t/f; typically represents relationship between concepts.


Act propositional network model j r anderson
ACT* Propositional Network Model: J.R. Anderson

  • Susan gave Maria, the president of the club, a white cat.