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Project and Problem Based Learning. John Henry EIRC firstname.lastname@example.org http://pbl4teachers.wikispaces.com/home http://cctec-pbl.wikispaces.com. Project and Problem Based Learning Students Deserve it The World Demands it. PROJECT or SCENARIO. Pedagogy. Technology. RESOURCES & CONSTRAINTS.
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Project and Problem Based Learning John HenryEIRCjhenry@eirc.org http://pbl4teachers.wikispaces.com/home http://cctec-pbl.wikispaces.com
Project and Problem Based LearningStudents Deserve it The World Demands it
PROJECT or SCENARIO Pedagogy Technology RESOURCES & CONSTRAINTS PBL FRAMEWORK Assessment Content
Constructivism Learning as an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current or past knowledge. Students continually build upon what they have already learned.
What does the research say in regards to students? • Increased attendance • Growth and self-reliance • Improved attitude toward learning (Thomas, 2000) • Academic gains equal to or better than other models (Boaler, Education Week 2004) • Opportunities to develop complex skills (SRI, 2000) • Access to a broader range of learning opportunities
What does the research say in regards to teachers? • Increased collaboration among colleagues • Opportunities to build better relationships with students (Thomas, 2000)
What does the research say about PBL? A three-year 1997 study of two secondary schools -- one that used open-ended projects and one that used more traditional, direct instruction -- found striking differences in understanding and standardized achievement data in mathematics.
What does the research say about PBL? In a five-year study, researchers at SRI International found that technology-using students in Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project-Based classrooms outperformed non-technology-using students in communication skills, teamwork, and problem solving.
What does the research say about PBL? The Center for Learning in Technology researchers, led by Bill Penuel, found • increased student engagement • greater responsibility for learning • increased peer collaboration skills • greater achievement gains by students who had been labeled low achievers
What does the research say about PBL? Lakeview School in Ill., use PBL to reach students who are struggling in traditional schools by implementing a curriculum that is based on "doing things based on real world situation.“ while addressing state standards -- and uses a project-based approach that incorporates cultural awareness, sustainability and other themes.
Lecture…Sit and Get Passive Average Retention Rates PBL Active Learning
Bloom's Taxonomy New Old
Always think outside the box FedEx http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alSQpinagp0
Engage the Student and the Achievement will Follow Achievement Gap or Engagement Gap? 85% of Middle and High School Students report being bored in their classrooms
Example of Engagement and Problem Solving Activity Toxic Popcorn Interest, hands-on, interactive and collaborative
Toxic Popcorn Scenario A can of highly toxic popcorn has contaminated a circle of approximately 4 feet in diameter. The toxic area extends to the ceiling. If the toxic popcorn is not transferred to a safe container for decontamination, it will contaminate the region The popcorn is estimated to have a safe life of exactly 15 minutes before it explodes. It’s up to you to save the day!
What do you know about PBL? • Why Do Problem Based Learning (PBL)? • What are the differences and similarities of Project and Problem Based Learning ? • What are the characteristics of PBL? • What is a typical process for PBL? • What are the benefits and obstacles of PBL • How is technology used with PBL? • How can PBL be incorporated across academic disciplines? • What are the student and teacher roles when doing PBL? • How do you assess PBL?
The core idea of Project and Problem Based learning is that real-world problems or situations capture students' interest and provoke serious thinking as the students acquire and apply new knowledge in a problem-solving context
Project Based Learning? Is a teaching and learning model that focuses on the central concepts and principles of a discipline, involves students in problem solving and other meaningful tasks, allows students to work autonomously and in groups to construct their own learning, culminates in realistic, student generated products.
Problem-Based Learning Defined Finkle and Torp (1995) state that "problem-based learning is a curriculum development and instructional system/process that simultaneously develops both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem that mirrors real-world problems"
Why Do PBL? The National Problem: As a result of a relative decline in student achievement … and interest of students to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM)-related careers … the United States IS AT RISK.
Why Do PBL? • Although US fourth graders score well against international competition, they fall near the bottom or dead last by 12th grade in Mathematics and Science, respectively. • In 2004 chemical companies closed 70 facilities in the United States and have tagged 40 more for shutdown. Of 120 new chemical plants around the world will be in the United States. 50 will be in China.
Why Do PBL? • In the US only 15% of the undergraduates receive their degrees in natural sciences or engineering. • Past 3 years alone, China & India have doubled production of 3- and 4-year degrees in engineering, computers science and IT, while the US production of engineers is stagnant and CS and IT have doubled. Losing Interest
Why Do PBL? Think critically and be able to analyze and solve complex, real-world problems Find, evaluate, and use appropriate learning resources Work individually and cooperatively in teams and small groups Demonstrate versatile and effective communication skills, both verbal and written Use content knowledge and develop skills to become life-long learners in order to succeed in a global economy
Framework for 21st Century Learning http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/route21/
The standard includes six strands, which reflect the • Framework for 21st Century Learning: • 21st Century Skills • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving • Creativity and Innovation • Collaboration, Teamwork, and Leadership • Cross-Cultural Understanding and Interpersonal • Communication • Communication and Media Fluency • Accountability, Productivity, and Ethics • Understanding by Design UbD template (lesson plan development) • http://www.state.nj.us/education/cccs/2009/final.htm 21st Century Themes Global Awareness Financial, Economic, Business, and Entrepreneurial Literacy Civic Literacy Health Literacy
Similarities to PBL and What Employers Want • Willingness to share information and ideas • Commitment to work in teams • Responsiveness to change • Sense of ownership with work and ideas • Willingness to take calculated risks, without fear of consequences
Similarities to PBL and What Employers Want • Multicultural experiences and or the ability to communicate in multiple languages • Ability to communicate clearly and honestly with peers, teachers, administrators, and experts from other organizations • Understanding business strategies • Commitment to continuous learning and skill • development
What are the similarities between Project Based and Problem Based Learning? • Both instructional strategies are intended to engage students in authentic, "real world" tasks to enhance learning. • Students are given open-ended projects or problems with more than one approach or answer, intended to simulate professional situations. • Both approaches are student-centered and the teacher acts as facilitator or coach.
What are the similarities between Project Based and Problem Based Learning? • Both approaches are student-centered and the teacher acts as facilitator or coach. • Students work in cooperative groups for extended periods of time • In both approaches, students seek out multiple sources of information. • There is often a performance-based assessment.
What are the differences between Project Based and Problem Based Learning? • In Project based learning, the students define the purpose for creating an end product. • In Problem based learning, the students are presented with a problem to solve.
What are the differences between Project Based and Problem Based Learning? • In Project based learning, the students present their conclusion and there is an end product. • In Problem based learning, when the students present their conclusion, there may or may not be an end product.
PBL vs. PBL • Similarities • Both deal with a motivating prompt, a question or problem, that has to be addressed by creating a solution or product. • Each is a valid instructional strategy that promotes active learning and engages students.
PBL consists of two complementary interrelated processes 1. Curriculum Design • Teachers design an ill-structured problem based on desired curriculum outcomes, learner characteristics, and compelling, problematic situations from the real world • Teachers develop a sketch or template of teaching and learning events in anticipation of students' learning needs • Teachers investigate the range of resources essential to the problem and arrange for their availability
PBL consists of two complementary interrelated processes 2. Cognitive Coaching • Students actively define problems and construct potential solutions • Teachers model, coach, and fade in supporting and making explicit students' learning processes
Problem-based learning has as its organizing center an ill-structured problem which... • is messy, Ill-structured and complex in nature • requires inquiry, information-gathering, and reflection • is changing and tentative • has no simple, fixed, formulaic, "right" solution • Appeals to human desire for resolution/ equilibrium/harmony • Sets up need for and context of learning
Creatively Speaking, Part Two: Sir Ken Robinson on the Power of the Imaginative Mind
Examples of PBL Scenarios You are a scientist at the state department of nuclear safety. Some people in a small community feel their health is at risk because a company keeps thorium piled above ground at one of their plants. What action, if any, should be taken? Summer Challenge 1992, IMSA
You are a consultant to the Department of Fish and Wildlife. A first draft of a plan for the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone has received strong, negative testimony at hearings. What is your advice regarding the plan? John Thompson, Ecology, IMSA
You are a science advisor at NASA. A planet much like the earth has experienced massive destruction of elements of its biosphere. What is causing the destruction of plant life? Can new plants from earth be successfully introduced to help save the planet's environment? Bill Orton, 2nd grade, Williamsburg, VA
You are a thirty-six year old single working mother with a five year old daughter. Upon your husband's death, you receive $20,000 in worker's compensation and $10,000 in stock option shares. How can you invest this money so that by your daughter's 18th birthday, its growth is maximized? LuAnn Malik, Community College of Aurora, Aurora, CO
You are a stockholder of a major oil refinery in Louisiana which has mined oil from wetlands in the southern part of the state. You have received pressure from publicity about the wetlands to make it property of the federal government so that it can be protected. What will you do? Christine Vitale, 4-5 multi-grade, Arlington Heights, IL
Develop, design, and demonstrate the feasibility of a self-contained, self-sustaining human community in a place that is not yet considered habitable. Woodbury High School, Advanced Technology Class, Grades 9-12
Examples of Scenarios http://pbl4teachers.wikispaces.com/ Exploring the Environment http://www.cotf.edu/ete/
Career and Technical Web 2.0 Technology http://careerandtechnical.wikispaces.com/ NJ Green Program of Study www.njgreenprogramofstudy.org The science of sustainability
PBL addresses student needs by taking learning theory into account with PBL: • Students take on an active role in their educational experiences. • Students are actively involved in the learning process, and they learn in the context in which knowledge is to be used.
PBL addresses student needs by taking learning theory into account with PBL: • Students are empowered with the responsibility of managing a largely self-directed learning process so that they are better equipped to take on the responsibilities of mature professional life. • Students are encouraged to develop the skill of transferring knowledge into new domains, a skill that students can carry with them throughout their lifetimes.