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Lunar Geology for Engineers and Scientists Lecture #2 / #3. Dr. Paul Lowman 4-6453 January 12, 2006 Paul.D.Lowman@nasa.gov. Lecture #2 / #3. Chemistry of the Moon GSFC, Bld 26, Rm. 205, January 12, 2006 Mineralogy of the Moon GSFC, Bld 26, Rm. 205, January 14, 2006 Viewgraphs.

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lunar geology for engineers and scientists lecture 2 3

Lunar Geology for Engineers and ScientistsLecture #2 / #3

Dr. Paul Lowman

4-6453 January 12, 2006

Paul.D.Lowman@nasa.gov

lecture 2 3
Lecture #2 / #3
  • Chemistry of the Moon
  • GSFC, Bld 26, Rm. 205, January 12, 2006
  • Mineralogy of the Moon
  • GSFC, Bld 26, Rm. 205, January 14, 2006
  • Viewgraphs

Lunar Lecture #2

introduction
Introduction
  • Best NASA plan in 40 years
    • “The Vision for Space Exploration” & “NASA’s Exploration Architecture”
  • Announcements of Opportunity due this spring
    • Our management working very hard to make this happen
    • AO’s will suddenly appear with short fuse
  • It’s Our Job to Get Our Fair Share
    • Work as a team & as teams

Lunar Lecture #2

lecture format
Lecture Format
  • Intro, Short Talk, Q&A, Info Table
    • Each starts very basic
    • Quickly become state of the art
    • References for farther study
  • Request Materials:
    • Tom Riley, John.T.Riley@nasa.gov
    • Let me know of other speakers
  • Next Lecture:
    • #3, Tuesday, January 17, 2006, Bld 26, Rm 205

Lunar Lecture #2

lecturer dr paul lowman
Lecturer: Dr. Paul Lowman
  • Degrees: B.S., Geology, Rutgers,1953; Ph.D., Geology, U. of Colorado,1963
  • 1962-1964 : NASA Headquarters; Apollo geophysics planning
  • 1966-1968: Chairman, Working Group On Extraterrestrial Resources
  • 1963-1970: Lecturer, lunar geology, Catholic University, Air Force Institute of Technology, U. of California.
  • 1969-1972: GSFC, Co-investigator, Apollo 11 and 12 samples Co-investigator, Apollo 15 and 16 X-ray fluorescence
  • 1987: NASA Headquarters, Space Leadership Planning Group
  • 1990-1991: GSFC Exploration Program Scientist
  • Date: Geophysicist, Planetary Geodynamics Branch, GSFC Code 698

Lunar Lecture #2

chemistry of the moon
Chemistry of the Moon
  • Periodic Table
    • Esp. rare earth elements, radioactive elements
  • Radioactive decay;
    • isotopic dating (Rb-Sr methods);
    • U - Pb series
  • Chemical bonds
    • covalent, ionic, metallic, van der Waals, hydrogen
  • Phase Rule (F = C -P + 2) and phase diagrams
  • Ideal Gas laws (PV=nRT)
  • Crystallography (cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic, tetragonal, triclinic, monoclinic systems )
    • X-ray diffraction
    • Bragg's Law (n lambda = 2d sin theta)
  • Colloids (esp. adsorption of gases by solids)
  • Organic chemistry

Lunar Lecture #2

slide7

www.webelements.com

Lunar Lecture #2

slide8

The Uranium – Radium

Family

General Chemistry,

Pauling, 1947

Lunar Lecture #2

slide9

Generalized Decay Curve

N = radioactive element

D = Stable daughter

Strontium Isotope Geology

G. Faure, J.. Powell, Springer ,1972

Lunar Lecture #2

slide10

Rb – Sr Isochron

Lunar Lecture #2

slide11

87Sr / 86Sr vs. Time

(comagmatic rock)

Lunar Lecture #2

slide12

KREEPy breccia, Apollo 12, Sample 12013

Reflected light, W face of sawed slab 12013,11; NASA photo S70-453171

Lunar Lecture #2

slide13

KREEPy breccia, Apollo 12, Sample 12013

Composite thin section of slab12013,9 (ca. same size as 12013,11)

Lunar Lecture #2

slide14

Radiometric age

determinations

Made by Caltech

lunar sample analysis

team on

Apollo sample12013

using rubidium-

strontium methods

Lunatic Asylum sic,

Earth & Planet. Sci.

Lett., 9, 137-163, 1970

Lunar Lecture #2

slide15

Phase Diagram of Water

Lunar Lecture #2

slide16

Phase relations in the Or-Ab-An system,

(a) At high temperatures, (b) at moderate temperatures

Lunar Lecture #2

slide17

Composition and phase relations in the common pyroxenes (Berry and Mason, 1959)

  • At high temperatures, (b) at medium temperatures.
  • The unshaded areas represent the miscibility gap between
  • high-calcic and low-calcic pyroxenes, which increases with decreasing temperatures

Lunar Lecture #2

slide18

Thin section of Apollo 11 basalt 10047, plane-polarized light.

Note sharp crystal outlines and lack of alteration.

White crystals are plagioclase, gray pyroxene, black ilmenite.

Lunar Lecture #2

slide19

Troctolite, Apollo 17

Plagioclase (white)

Olivine (brown)

Reference:

French, In the New

Solar System, Beatty et al.

1982

Lunar Lecture #2

slide20

Highland breccia,

Apollo 16

Plagioclase (white)

Impact melt? (black)

Lunar Lecture #2

slide23

Bar graphs showing

modal (volumetric) abundances of principal particle types

in 14 lunar soil samples

This diagram distinguishes

between rock fragments

(mare lithics, highland lithics),

single minerals

(pyroxene,olivine,plagioclase), glass,

and fused soil (agglutinates + DMB-

Dark Matrix Breccia).

Samples from Apollo 11,12,

14, 15, 16,17,and Luna 16 and 24.

From Lunar Sourcebook, Heiken,Vaniman, and French,Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Lunar Lecture #2

chemical evolution of the moon
Chemical Evolution of the Moon
  • Extremely rapid, high temperature formation process
    • Giant impact? Independent origin? Fission? Capture?
  • Reference: Lowman, The relation of tektites to lunar igneous activity, Icarus, v.2, p. 35-48, 1963.
  • Heat sources:
    • Accretion energy
    • Adiabatic compression
    • Tidal friction (from capture?)
    • Short-lived isotopes (Al 26, Be 10,U 236, Ca 135)
    • Long-lived isotopes (U, Th, K40)
  • Chemical consequences:
    • Depletion in volatiles (H20, K, Na, Rb)
    • Oxidation state (highly reduced vs. Earth)
    • Moon deficient in Fe (vs. Earth)
  • Most important: NO WATER

Lunar Lecture #2

mineralogy of the moon
Mineralogy of the Moon
  • Mineral:
    • naturally-occurring, crystalline, inorganic (usually), solid substance with a definite chemical composition or range of compositions, mechanically separable
  • Major Terrestrial Rock-Forming Minerals (crust)
    • Quartz
    • Feldspars
    • Pyroxenes
    • Olivine
    • Ice
    • Amphiboles (hornblende, etc.)
    • Calcite, dolomite
    • Micas
    • Clay minerals
    • Ferric oxides (limonite, hematite)
    • Serpentine minerals
  • Italicized minerals not found on Moon because of lack of water.

Lunar Lecture #2

major lunar rock forming minerals
Major Lunar Rock-forming Minerals
  • Quartz: SiO2
    • Most common simple mineral in Earth’s crust, very rare on Moon. Like Hawaii. Why?
  • Major Lunar Rock-forming Minerals
    • Plagioclase feldspar
    • Pyroxenes
    • Olivine
    • Ilmenite (FeTiO3)
    • Iron (Fe)

Lunar Lecture #2