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Littelfuse Startco Arc Flash Relay PGR-8800. Arc Faults: Costly and Dangerous. Dangers Fires Burns Injury Death Costs Collateral damage Equipment replacement Downtime Labour. Arc Flash / Blast Statistics. Over 1000 people die each year from electrical accidents*

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arc faults costly and dangerous
Arc Faults: Costly and Dangerous
  • Dangers
  • Fires
  • Burns
  • Injury
  • Death
  • Costs
  • Collateral damage
  • Equipment replacement
  • Downtime
  • Labour
slide3

Arc Flash / Blast Statistics

  • Over 1000 people die each year from electrical accidents*
  • Up to 10 Arc-Flash incidents occur each day in the US
  • Over 2000 workers are sent to burn centers each year with severe Arc-Flash burns.
  • OSHA states that 80% of electrically related accidents and fatalities among Qualified Workers are caused by Arc-Flash/Arc-Blast Incidents.

* Source: National Safety Council

slide4

Case Study – Nov 12, 2009

  • Chiller Easton Ice Rink, Columbus, Ohio
  • An electrician was working on a 480V power panel when the panel sparked and caught fire
    • The electrician was thrown to the floor and eventually transported to the OSU Burn Center with severe burns on face and hands.
    • Witnesses reported the panel was still sparking when the fire crews arrived.

* Source: Dayton Daily News

slide5

Types of Electrical Hazards

  • Electric Shock - trauma caused by the passage of electric current through the body.
  • Arc-Flash –an unexpected sudden release of intense heat and light energy produced by electricity traveling through air, usually caused by accidental contact between live conductors.
  • Arc-Blast - a pressure wave created by heating, melting, vaporization, and expansion of conducting material and surrounding air during an Arc-Flash.
slide6

Types of Electrical Hazards

Shock

Arc-Blast

Arc-Flash

Fire

Gases

Light

Sound

Pressure Wave

slide7

Effects of Electrical Hazards on Workers

  • Severe burns
  • Vision damage or blindness
  • Hearing loss
  • Broken bones or internal organ damage
  • Whiplash
  • Brain injuries
  • Lacerations
  • Fatality

Photos courtesy of OSHA

slide8

Effects of Electrical Hazards on Business

Costly Damage…

  • Equipment replacement and need for capital
  • Equipment repair costs
  • Downtime
  • Production Loss (scrap)

…and business interruption.

Image from IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop, Floyd, Doan, Barrios, Wellman

Image from IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop, H. Landis Floyd, II

slide9

What Determines Arc-Flash Severity?

  • System Voltage
  • Arc Characteristics
    • Arc gap / Distance from arc
  • Fault Current
    • Available fault current
    • Arc current typically 38% of available fault current
  • Time
    • Clearing time

Image from OSHA Office of Training & Education

slide10

Initiators of these faults

  • IEEE Std 493-1997 (Gold Book) Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
development of an arc fault
Development of an Arc Fault

Voltage difference between two conductors (250V) separated by air gap, high resistance

Voltage reaches breakdown point, rapid release of energy across gap

Shortest distance from bus bar corner to bolt corner

Usually phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground

Energy limited only by system resistance, air gap impedance

lifespan of an arc fault1
Lifespan of an Arc Fault

50 kA bolted fault between 480 Vac and ground

slide16

Arc Flash Relay

  • PGR-8800 Series
    • 1ms reaction time
  • Detects light
    • Point sensors (A)
    • Fiber optic sensor (B)
  • Detect over-currents
    • Phase CTs (3)
    • Any CT with 5A sec.
  • Link upto (4) AF Relays
    • Larger systems
pgr 8800 functions features
PGR-8800Functions & Features
  • Six light sensors
  • Built-in front sensor
  • Adjustable light sensitivity
  • 1000 event logging
  • Dual inputs for switches or PLC
  • Fail-safe operation
  • Local USB interface
    • No drivers or s/wreq’d
pga ls10 point sensors
PGA-LS10 - Point Sensors

Circuit Check

Signal

Supply

Coverage

Shield

120%

Half-Circle

100%

  • The sensor can be also be mountedto ”see through” the back of the cabinet.

10 m

Ø3.5 mm

Range is 2 to 2.5 meters

8 mm

Sensor

Lens

Red LED for

Circuit-check

& Visual Diagnostics

52 mm

360°

360°

Mounting

Holes

(front / back)

32 mm

80%

100%

100%

80%

Point Sensor

pga ls20 fiber optic sensors
PGA-LS20 - Fiber-Optic Sensors
  • 26 ft flexible fiber
  • 360° detection angle
  • LED for visual feedback
  • Built-incircuit check
  • Electricallyextendable
  • Plug-inconnector

One fiber-optic sensor can replace several point sensors

multi unit installation example
Multi-Unit Installation Example

LINK

Switchboard

Supply

2

L1

L2

L3

Trip

Electrical cables

Sensors Detecting Arc

Fiber-Optic SensorPoint Sensors

System can be expanded with up to four PGR-8800 Modules

pgr 8800 applications
PGR-8800 Applications

Transformer secondary

3 x 22 kV

Transformer primary

3 x 690 V

Air-cooled transformers are sensitive to contaminants, affecting the resistance of the air gap between electrical connections (phases, bolted connections etc.)

slide24

Additional Information

  • www.startco.ca/arcflash
  • Datasheet
  • Product Manual
  • Brochure

Littelfuse Startco:

306-373-5505

Arc Flash RelayBrochure PF136

Datasheet