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Traps and pitfalls for VC6, ATL, C++. May be obvious ? May be not ? Mark Bartosik. Danagers of _bstr_t. _bstr_t::_bstr_t(const char * narrow_str) Unhandled exception 0xC00000FD because it allocates from the stack 2 x strlen(narrow_str) operator const char *() const operator char *()

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Traps and pitfalls for vc6 atl c
Traps and pitfalls for VC6, ATL, C++

  • May be obvious ?

  • May be not ?

    Mark Bartosik


Danagers of bstr t
Danagers of _bstr_t

  • _bstr_t::_bstr_t(const char * narrow_str)

    • Unhandled exception 0xC00000FDbecause it allocates from the stack 2 x strlen(narrow_str)

  • operator const char *() constoperator char *()

    • both return a pointer to PRIVATE data

      const char * p = get_str();

      unsigned len = strlen(p); // bang ???#! error ??


Danagers of bstr t1
Danagers of _bstr_t

  • operator const wchar_t *() constoperator wchar_t *()

    • both return a pointer to PRIVATE data

      BSTR p = get_str();

      unsigned len = SysStringLen(p); // bang ???#! err??


Alternatives with bstr t
Alternatives with _bstr_t

  • const wchar_t * GetWString() const

  • const char * GetString() const

  • But not realistic. Once the extraction operators exist, you cannot avoid them.

  • #pragma depracatedsee Visual Studio .NET


Dangers of ccombstr
Dangers of CComBSTR

  • What is wrong with the following member functions?operator BSTR() constBSTR* operator&()

  • int a;int * p = &a;


Ccomptr t ccomqiptr t
CComPtr<T> CComQIPtr<T>

  • T** operator&()

    • Gives access to internal datacan cause a leak (if not NULL)

  • T& operator*()

    • Does not access to IUnknownoperator->() returns proxy object with private IUnknown

  • operator T*()

    • Gives implicit access to raw pointer


Com ptr t t
_com_ptr_t<T>

  • T** operator&()

  • T* operator->()Exposes Iunknown, unlike CComPtr & CComQIPtr which return a proxy object

  • Behaves like CComQIPtr but uses exceptions for error reporting.Auto declared by #import



How to choose
How to choose ?

  • Consistency is best

  • Consistently use _bstr_t or CComBSTR

  • Consistently use CComPtr or _com_ptr_tIf using #import prefer _com_ptr_t

  • Does the rest of your code use exceptions or magic return values?

  • Write your own? (based on CComPtr)


Collections
collections

std::map<unsigned, employee_t>std::map<unsigned, CComPtr<IEmployee> >std::map<unsigned, CAdapt<CComPtr<IEmployee> > >

Also when erasing elements, don’t saw off the branch that you are sitting on. (General STL rule)Store objects NOT dumb pointers (smart pointers are objects)Remember that my_collection.erase(iter) invalidates iter.use iter = my_collection.erase(iter)Don’t forget about the algorithms #include <algorithm>


Import
#import

  • Can use instead of .h, even for implementationImplement the raw_ functions.

  • Read the .tlh filesBe careful some functions will return IDispatchPtr others will return IDispatch *. It depends on the IDL.Reading the .tlh is a thinking aid, keep it open in a window.


Debugging
Debugging

  • Prefer __stdcall over __thiscall

  • Optimizer off

  • Consider releasing with optimizer off (except allow inlines for likes of STL)

  • Symbol files on (PDB not PDB for edit continue), Link with debug info,Do not separate types

  • Debug with Visual Studio .NET


More lifetime management
(more) lifetime management

CObj::foo(){ CSLock __anonymous__(m_critsec); m_sub_object.Release();} // Bang!

CObj::foo(){ IUnknownPtr __anonymous__(this); CSLock __anonymous__(m_critsec); m_sub_object.Release();}


More lifetime management1
(more) lifetime management

  • Do not mix strong and weak pointers

  • What if you need a C++ pointer to a CComObject derived object?std::pair<COurClass*, UnknownPtr> orstruct

  • {

  • UnknownPtr strong_ref; COurClass * weak_ref;

  • }


Patterns
Patterns

  • Avoid Singleton anti-pattern

  • Once per what?Per network? Per sub-net? Per machine? Per apartment ? Per security context ? Per process? Per thread? Per transaction? Per user ? Etc.The ATL singleton is once per process.

  • Use a more natural language idiom

    • C++ globals are naturally per process.

    • C variables in a shared data seg are naturally per machine

    • VB module variables are naturally per thread (apartment)

    • But avoid global pointers to COM objects (issues with CRT and COM initialization order)


Cyclic references connection points
Cyclic references & Connection points

  • Wizard generated code is just bad (has some bugs)Also it is synchronoussee www.cuj.com (search for Bartosik)

  • Lack of type safety (IDispatch)


Build consideration
Build consideration

  • Prefer dynamic link CRT(but there are install issues)

  • Avoid creating COM components within a group


Libraries
Libraries

  • STL

  • WTL

  • boost.org


Leak browser
Leak Browser

  • Much of COM is about ownership / lifetime management, but poor C++ language binding, thus the bugs.

  • Will find all your leaks

  • Soon will find all your references to deleted objects

  • Soon will find all use of uninitialized memory

  • Contact Bartosik for updates / latest build.


Casts
casts

reinterpret_cast<TO>(from)reinterpret the bit pattern (unsafe and forceful)

dynamic_cast<TO>(from)

runtime check (from must have at least one virtual function). Often a sign ofbad design. Why don’t you know the type. dynamic_cast<derived*>(base*)

static_cast<TO>(from)convert only if reasonable

const_cast<TO>(from)remove either const or volatile qualifiers

(TO)c-style cast -- avoid it, like static_cast OR reinterpret_cast optionally combined with const_cast, and can be more forceful than reinterpret_cast.


Compiler settings use pdb for all
Compiler settings(use PDB for all)


Linker settings include debug info
Linker settings(include debug info)


Linker settings do not separate types
Linker settings(do not separate types)