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Международная лаборатория СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ГОРОДСКИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ. outline. Introductions The role of the University in Urban Planning and Development The aims of the KFU laboratory and key performance indicators Key issues for Russian Urban development Current trends in Urban Development

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Международная лабораторияСРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ГОРОДСКИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ

outline
outline
  • Introductions
  • The role of the University in Urban Planning and Development
  • The aims of the KFU laboratory and key performance indicators
  • Key issues for Russian Urban development
  • Current trends in Urban Development
  • Areas of expertise at University of Birmingham and current projects
universities and the third mission
Universities and the ‘third mission’
  • About 15 years ago it was recognized that the role of the University went beyond its first two ‘missions’ of teaching and research
  • This saw the development of the ‘entrepreneurial university’ and was based around technology transfers
  • Often based around the commercialization of inventions and

...improving regional or national economic performance as well as the university’s financial vantage and that of its faculty. (Etzkowitz et al. 2000: 313)

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Obviously economic development is still important but it is now realized that it needs to be much more than this and is now seen to be

“where the university: collaborates with diverse social actors [policy makers, politicians, NGOs, different funding agencies, social groups etc] to create societal transformations with the goal of materializing sustainable development in a specific location, region or societal sub-sector.”

benefits of university involvement
Benefits of university involvement
  • So now in many Western European regions there is much more collaboration between urban developers and universities
  • Universities have deep multidisciplinary approaches and knowledges
  • Approaches based on international comparisons and research – much easier for an academic to be internationally mobile than policy makers
  • Comfortable with a wide range of research approaches – surveys, interviews, partitcipant observation, statistical analysis and the use of big data
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Universities have the latest equipment and the capacity to utilize it (through research teams, student projects etc)

  • Through attendance at conferences, journal writing and reading academics are exposed to latest trends at a very early stage
  • In the UK every research application has to include public engagement and impact statements – thus research is designed from its inception to have a broader influence than just within academic
  • Academics have a wide range of networks and contacts – both in academia and outside – that regional planners can draw upon. For example, University of Birmingham have strong links with Universities in Chicago, Sao Paulo, India, China and Japan from which urban development ideas can be drawn from – for government departments such reach is very difficult to achieve – therefore collaboration with the KFU lab places such departments in global networks
examples from birmingham
Examples from Birmingham

Birmingham emerges as unlikely tourism hotspot

940,000 visitors ventured to the Midlands city in 2013 - a 32pc surge

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МИССИЯ ЛАБОРАТОРИИ «СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ГОРОДСКИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ»
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МЕСТО ЛАБОРАТОРИИВ МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ И РОССИЙСКОЙ КОНКУРЕНЦИИ

Лаборатория Сравнительных городских исследований КФУ будет обеспечивать рост научных публикаций в журналах, индексируемых в Scopus/Web of Science и обеспечивать возможность исследователям включаться в глобальные дебаты, создание и укрепление курсов магистратуры, продвинутого тренинга для молодых ученых и взаимодействия с муниципальными властями.

Центр будет занимать ведущую позицию быть привлекательным российским партнером по включению в гранты европейской программы Horizon и гранты European National research funding councils, Российского научного фонда и др.

1й в России Центр по междисциплинарным городским исследованиям, включенным в глобальные дебаты

1й в России Центр, включающий 10 западных ученых в различные сферы исследований и экспертизы в России

1й в России с программой двойных дипломов в Городских исследований. Магистранты будут учиться в КФУ и УБ одновременно

1й в России Центр с совместной программой PhD по городским исследованиям с университетом, входящим в топ-100

Российский ведущий университет, предоставляющий дополнительное обучение муниципальным и государственным служащим

Ведущий Центр по обучению и росту ученых международного класса посредством руководства и построения исследовательских сетей

Устойчивый Центр по привлечению местных исследователей для участия в проектах и реализации грантов

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ЛАБОРАТОРИЯ В КОНТЕКСТЕ ПРОГРАММЫ ПОВЫШЕНИЯ КОНКУРЕНТОСПОСОБНОСТИ КФУ
  • Применение «лучших практик» Университета Бирмингема (62 место в рейтинге QS)
  • Соответствие основным мероприятиям, способствующим вхождению КФУ в топ-100: создание программ двойных дипломов, приглашение ведущих ученых и постдоков, повышение индекса цитируемости и т.д.
  • Соответствие приоритетным направлениям КФУ по ППК:  биомедицина, инфокоммуникационные технологии, нефтедобыча, нефтепереработка нефтехимия, перспективные материалы
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КЛЮЧЕВЫЕ РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ

УСТОЙЧИВОСТЬ

Как минимум 8 ученых Университета Бирмингема будут вовлечены в деятельность Лаборатории

МА Городские исследования в УБ имеют аккредитацию Королевского городского планирования

Интенсивное международное сотрудничество

Лаборатория будет получать доход от образовательных услуг и грантов

Будет выпускать ученых международного уровня

  • Как минимум 120 статей в ведущих журналах, входящих в Scopus (импакт-фактор >1.5), подготовленных сотрудниками, магистрантами и аспирантами
  • Выпуск англоязычного журнала
  • Совместная аспирантура с Университетом Бирмингема
  • Совместная магистерская программа
  • Развитие ведущих в стране курсов для бакалавров
  • Практикоориентированное обучение и привлечение муниципальных служащих
  • Высокий уровень международной видимости
key issues for russian urban development
Key issues for Russian Urban development
  • Unique as issues from Soviet legacy, such as city size, economic function, transport links, housing stock, environmental issues still have great impact
  • The size, and nature of Moscow, is a factor as most investment takes place there and there is perception that it is ‘the place to be’ for younger people so there is a brain drain towards it
  • Federal Government urban planning policy has been more towards mega events – which while very positive have issues and do not consider other cities/regions
key issues for russian urban development1
Key issues for Russian Urban development
  • There is a lack of a unified approach that exists in Western Europe – planning is often split between departments and policies can contradict
  • To date there is less emphasis on an overall approach, which until very recently did not occur as well in Western Europe, i.e. the linkages between economic, social, environmental, cultural issues which all need to be considered for sustainable economic and social growth to occur – currently in Russia more an emphasis on single issues
key questions for russian cities
Key questions for Russian cities
  • How to develop resilient long-term social-economic growth?
  • How to improve the environment (air pollution, water quality as well as the general living environment)?
  • How to retain people in the region?
  • How to include people in the development process to ensure their commitment to it?
  • How to adopt new technologies and approaches (smart cities, big data etc)
  • What to prioritize for development – housing stock? Road? Business zones? International links?
current trends in urban development
Current trends in Urban Development
  • A holistic approach to urban development i.e. not one single aspect can be ignored, for example long-term economic growth cannot be achieved without environmental stability and public inclusion
  • The idea of resilience. This is probably the most discussed idea at the moment and works on many scales – the central idea is how something ‘bounces’ back from an external shock (the idea is taken from biology) and can be concerned with environmental issues (such as floods), economic (recession), terrorism (how to build safer cities), health (how to create healthy cities).

Within planning now there is much discussion how resilience can be built into development – in other words how shocks can be minimalized and also there is an understanding that shocks do not have to be big events but can be slow burning (such as the decline of parts of a city)

scales of resilience
Scales of resilience
  • Regional – how a region can cope with large scale events such as a flood or an earth quake
  • City – how can a city develop economic and environmental resilience. How can cities be smarter and safer
  • Local – what are the networks at a local level and how are they used to provide support to external issues such as economic decline

All of these need to be considered in urban development projects in order for sustainable growth to be achieved

current trends in urban development continued
Current trends in Urban Development (continued)
  • In order for urban development to be successful it needs to be inclusive so that people become committed to it
  • Cities are deciding more ‘what they want to be’ – not every city can be a global city, for example, Chicago realizing it cannot compete with New York is positioning itself as more a key USA city
  • There needs to be the development of pride in the city/region with government and universities taking the lead in this by inclusive development
links between birmingham and tatarstan
Links between Birmingham and Tatarstan
  • Both second level regions
  • Population around 3 million
  • Multi-cultural regions
  • Both attempting to diversify their economies
  • Developing international linkages
areas of expertise at university of birmingham
Areas of expertise at University of Birmingham

Research groups include

  • Society, Economy and Environment
  • Centre for Urban and Regional Studies
  • Environmental Health Sciences
  • Hydro-ecology
  • Critical Urbanism
  • Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR) – as a result of a 900,000,000 rouble private donation
  • Local Government
  • Birmingham Business School
centre for urban and regional studies curs
Centre for Urban and Regional Studies (CURS)
  • CURS is a leading international centre for research, teaching and consultancy in spatial and social planning studies, an academic and policy discipline that encompasses agendas around housing, regeneration, economic development, communities and the governance of public policy. 
  • Main research areas
    • Strategic spatial planning
    • Economic development
    • Urban regeneration and resilience
    • Place leadership
environmental health sciences
Environmental Health Sciences
  • The Environmental Health Sciences Group within the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences addresses a range of research issues requiring the application of chemical and physical principles to the study of environmental processes. Ultimately, such processes are relevant to environmental change and human health.

Within this there is research on Urbanclimate

Modeling is a particular strength of the group from small scale street canyon turbulence models (used for revealing the key mechanisms that affect urban climate and pollution level) to global circulation models (used for predicting future climate change). These models are used to quantify the impact of weather and climate on the economy, society, and the built environment.

water sciences
Water Sciences
  • The Water Sciences research group at the University of Birmingham undertakes pure, strategic and applied research within this dynamic and fast-moving topic area, to address questions of immediate concern to science, environment and society. The vision of the group is to 'advance the science of water for a changing environment'.
  • Fundamental understanding of the distribution, movement and properties of the Earth’s waters (and their relationship with the environment, including living beings, within each phase of the water cycle) is essential to addressing important practical issues related to socio-economic development, sustainable use of water resources, management of water stress/ risk, projection of future change and global water-food-energy security.
what makes the collaboration unique
What makes the collaboration unique?
  • At UoB almost all research is multidisciplinary from its inception
  • Therefore, analysis, results, output and impact cover a wide spectrum of inter linked issues
  • For example a project looking at urban health would include the actual scientific issues (i.e. the scale of the problem), the social impacts, how the problem can be mapped, the creation of models to allow international comparison and the creation of solutions to a wide range of issues
  • There are many links across the university from GEES – such as to the Birmingham Business School, Institute for Superdiversity, Social Policy, Economics, Centre for Russian and East European studies – Thus Kazan Federal University, and the urban regions of Tatarstan, will have access to an incredibly broad range of expertise
what makes the collaboration unique1
What makes the collaboration unique?
  • GEES has extensive experience of developing life long learning courses for government officials
  • UoB has excellent links with Universities in Brazil, China and India (as well as an EU office in Brussels) which involve student and staff exchange
  • Through the Laboratory KFU and Tatarstan can thus access expertise and skills from other BRIC countries
  • The Laboratory can be used as an means to access European research groups and networks
  • It also has links to University of Tokyo and University of Chicago who are world leaders in Urban Development policy
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ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЕ ГРУППЫЛаборатории «Сравнительные городские исследования»
  • Городское многообразие, культура и здоровье (Фил Джонс, УБ, Ирина Кузнецова, ИФМБ)
  • Городская социология (Джон Раунд, УБ, Анна Толкачева, ИСИМО)
  • Городская среда (Джон Олдфильд, УБ, Полина Ермолаева, ИСИМО)
  • Городская экономика, стратегия городского развития, уровень жизни (Влад Михненко, УБ, Азат Сафиуллин, ИЭФ, Михаил Панасюк, ИТР)
  • Городская экология, водные ресурсы, воздух Urban Ecology (Ник Кеттридж, УБ, Полина Галицкая, ИЭ)
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МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ПАРТНЕРЫ ЛАБОРАТОРИИ
  • Университет Бирмингема – основной партнер
  • Университет Чикаго, США
  • Университет Илинойса в Урбан-Шампайн, США
  • Университет Сан-Паулу, Бразилия
  • Национальный университет Сингапура
  • Университет Токио, Япония
  • Университеты, входящие в исследовательские сети Университета Бирмингема
ways forward for inclusion
Ways forward for inclusion
  • A series of ‘town hall’ meetings where people can discuss ideas and wishes for the city
  • The involvement of all groups in society – children, senior citizens, young families etc – and those involved with planning – government officials, practitioners, entrepreneurs, academics etc – through workshops, open calls for ideas, forums
  • A multi-disciplinary approach to bring together environmental, economic, social, cultural issues and ideas that will make the city stand out in Russia as the first to take a holistic, resilient, approach
  • Support for ‘city champions’ who will collect ideas and forward them through different channels, such as print and social media
  • Exchanging ideas with other regions of the world through study trips, case studies, research projects
what we can offer to cities and towns
What we can offer to cities and towns
  • Assessment, in collaboration of local administrators, of key urban issues
  • Inclusion into wide scale urban issue research projects run from KFU/UoB
  • Potential to be included into large international urban research projects
  • Links into international urban development communities
  • Potential for post-docs, PhD students from UoB to work on specific issues in your region
  • Development of life long learning courses for government officials and urban development practitioners which will be based on world leading knowledge and expertise
a final vision
A final vision
  • In all likelihood this planet will have to carry 8-10 billion people sometime in this century. Cities are our best hope for accommodating so many people, but cities will fail ultimately if we don’t investigate the processes underlying the functioning of these super-systems, if we don’t diagnose and value the services provided to us by the non-human urban system, and if we don’t recognise the vulnerability of all human and non-human complex systems. That’s a lot of detailed and complicated work to undertake, but perhaps the most important work simply is to change our mind-set and realise finally that, for our own good, cities should not just exploit the potentials that people and finite natural resources offer, but should enhance the lived experience of all those who live, and will live, in them. Cities are for life, not just for people.

Rob MacKenzie is Professor of Atmospheric Science at the University of Birmingham's School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science.

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Вопросы для обсуждения
  • Какие направления исследований были бы наиболее актуальны для татарстанских муниципальных образований?
  • Какие направления повышения квалификации для муниципальных служащих по развитию урбанизированных и неурбанизированных территорий были бы наиболее интересны?
  • Какой опыт городского планирования Бирмингема был бы наиболее полезен для изучения?