Noncommunicable Diseases In this chapter, you will Learn About… • What allergies and asthma are and how they’re treated. • What cancer is and how it’s treated. • Different types of heart disease and how they’re treated. • What diabetes and arthritis are and how they’re treated.
Understanding Allergies and Asthma In this lesson, you will Learn About… • Types of noncommunicable diseases. • What allergies are and how they’re treated. • What asthma is and how it’s treated.
Understanding Allergies and Asthma The Vocabularyterms in this lesson are: • Noncommunicable disease. • Chronic. • Allergy. • Allergens. • Pollen. • Histamines. • Antihistamine. • Asthma. • Bronchodilators.
Noncommunicable Disease A noncommunicable disease is a disease that cannot be spread from person to person. Noncommunicable diseases are often caused by changes within the body and can be chronic.
Type Causes/Risk Factors Examples Present at birth Diseases that are caused by hereditary factors or that result from problems during a baby’s development or birth • Cystic fibrosis • Sickle-cell anemia • Cerebral palsy Behavior choices Diseases to which unhealthful behavior choices often contribute (i.e., eating high-fat foods; being physically inactive; using tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs; failing to manage stress properly) • Many types of heart disease • Most cases of lung cancer • Cirrhosis of the liver Types of Noncommunicable Diseases
Examples Type Causes/Risk Factors • Some types of allergies • Lung cancer caused by breathing in asbestos particles • Respiratory diseases caused by breathing in certain substances in polluted air Diseases that are caused by exposure to specific substances in the environment or to environmental hazards, such as pollution, toxic wastes, and secondhand smoke Environmental factors Unknown causes Diseases whose causes are unknown • Alzheimer’s disease • Rheumatoid arthritis • Chronic fatigue syndrome Types of Noncommunicable Diseases (cont’d.)
Allergies An allergy is an extreme sensitivity to a substance. In a person who has allergies, the immune system is overly sensitive to certain substances that are normally harmless. These substances are called allergens. The immune system’s response to these substances triggers an allergic reaction. One of the most common allergens is pollen.
Common Allergens Insect bites or stings Pets Pollen Plants, such as poison oak and poison ivy Household dust Foods
Allergic Reactions When a person who has an allergy breathes in, touches, or swallows an allergen, the allergen locks onto the body’s lymphocytes. These cells then release histamines, the chemicals that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions may involve the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and the respiratory and digestive systems.
Treating Allergies Once the specific allergen is known, the person who has the allergy can use one of the following methods to cope with it: • Avoid the allergen: If you are allergic to a certain food, for example, you can avoid eating it to prevent a reaction. • Take medication: If you cannot avoid the allergen, antihistamines may relieve symptoms. • Get injections: A person who has severe allergies can undergo a long-term series of injections. Each injection contains a tiny amount of the allergen to help a person overcome his or her sensitivity.
Asthma Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that causes air passages to become narrow or blocked, making breathing difficult. Many of the same substances that cause allergies also cause asthma. These substances and certain conditions or situations are called asthma triggers.
Asthma (cont’d.) Common asthma triggers: • Certain allergens, such as pollen, dust, pets, and mold • Strenuous physical activity, especially in cold weather • Infections of the respiratory system, such as colds and flu • Irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollution and fumes from paint, gasoline, and other toxic substances • Situations in which the person’s breathing rate increases, such as stressful events and vigorous laughing or crying • Weather and climate changes and cold air
Effects of an Asthma Attack Swollen airway and contracted muscle Narrowed airway Normal airway Mucus During normal breathing, the lungs’ airways are wide open. Air passes freely in and out through these tubes. During an asthma attack, the lining of the airways becomes swollen, and the muscles around the tubes tighten. Extra mucus is produced, further clogging the airways.
Managing Asthma The following strategies can help people with asthma feel better and avoid asthma attacks: • Monitor the condition. • Manage the environment. • Manage stress. • Take medication such as bronchodilators.
Reviewing Terms and Facts An allergy is an extreme sensitivity to a substance. Allergens are substances that cause an allergic reaction. • Define the terms allergy and allergen.
Reviewing Terms and Facts • Pollen • Foods • Pets • Household dust • Plants, such as poison oak and poison ivy • Insect bites or stings • Name four common allergens.
Thinking Critically • In what ways is asthma different from a cold?
Vocabulary Review A noncommunicable disease is a disease that cannot be spread from person to person.
Vocabulary Review Chronic means present continuously or on and off over a long period of time.
Vocabulary Review An allergy is an extreme sensitivity to a substance.
Vocabulary Review Allergens are the substances that cause an allergic reaction.
Vocabulary Review Pollen is a powdery substance released by the flowers of certain plants.
Vocabulary Review Histamines are the chemicals in the body that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction.
Vocabulary Review Antihistamines are medications that relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions by suppressing the production of histamines.
Vocabulary Review Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that causes air passages to become narrow or blocked, making breathing difficult.
Vocabulary Review Bronchodilators are medications that relax the muscles around the bronchial air passages.
Fold a sheet of paper in half along the short axis, then fold in half again. This forms four columns. Open the paper and refold it into thirds along the long axis. This forms three rows.
Unfold and draw lines along the folds. Label the chart as shown.
Write down information on the causes, effects, and treatments of allergies and asthma in the appropriate section of the chart.
Evaluate your behaviors and choices for lifelong health by taking the Health Inventory for Chapter 13 at http://www.glencoe.com/qe/qe65.php?qi=1506