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Introduction to Medical Informatics Definition and scope of HI, medical research to clinical practice lifecycle, electronic patient records . Medical informatics Lecture 1. The big picture . Standards based formalisation of clinical data and research results. Understanding diseases and

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medical informatics lecture 1

Introduction to Medical Informatics Definition and scope of HI, medical research to clinical practice lifecycle, electronic patient records

Medical informaticsLecture 1
the big picture
The big picture

Standards based

formalisation of clinical data and research results

Understanding

diseases and

their treatment

Develop

and test treatments

Patient-specific

Decision-making to optimise and personalise treatment

Clinical engagement, post-marketing surveillance, data mining

Service delivery,

performance assessment

Ensure right

Patients receive

right intervention

Manage safe workflow, professional communication, security

course objectives
Course objectives
  • Provide an overview of the main development areas in health informatics.
  • Understand the role of informatics in translating medical research into clinical practice
  • Look at 4 key topics in more depth
    • Electronic patient records
    • Formal representation of clinical data and medical knowledge
    • Clinical decision making and decision support
    • Care pathways and workflow management
recommended texts
Recommended texts
  • Guide to Health Informatics - Enrico Coiera 2nd edition 2003
  • From Patient data to Medical Knowledge - Paul Taylor 2006
  • Other useful resources at
    • www.openclinical.org
biomedical informatics 1 bio informatics
Biomedical informatics (1): Bio-informatics
  • Rapidly developing branch of biology: highly interdisciplinary, using techniques and concepts from IT, statistics, mathematics, chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and linguistics!
  • Seeks knowledge from computer analysis of
    • biological data (e.g. genomics, proteomics)
    • experimental results
    • patient statistics
    • scientific literature.
  • Research in bioinformatics includes development of methods for storage, retrieval, and analysis of data, modeling and simulation of cellular/molecular systems.
biomedical informatics 2 health informatics
Biomedical informatics (2): Health-informatics
  • Also known as medical or clinical informatics
  • It is applied to primary and specialist patient care, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, public health etc.
  • Deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in delivery of healthcare services
  • A particular focus is on services at the point of care and emphasis is increasingly being placed on informatics for patients and carers as well as professionals.
topics in health informatics 1 traditional perspective
Topics in health informatics (1): traditional perspective
  • Architectures for electronic medical records and other health information systems used for billing, scheduling, and research
  • Standards (e.g. DICOM, HL7) … to facilitate the exchange of information between healthcare information systems - these specifically define the means to exchange data, not the content
  • Controlled vocabularies … used to allow a standard, accurate exchange of data content between systems and providers
  • Software for specialist services and devices
topics in health informatics 2 new drivers
Topics in health informatics (2):new drivers
  • Quality and safety
    • US Institute of Medicine
      • “To err is human”
      • “Crossing the quality chasm”
      • McGlynn data on service delivery
      • Fineberg lecture on YouTube
    • NHS
  • Emergence of clinical decision support and workflow management systems
topics in health informatics 3 contemporary multidisciplinary view
Topics in health informatics (3):Contemporary multidisciplinary view
  • Traditional “engineering” topics
    • Hardware and software service architectures
    • Specialist technical services
    • Digital signal processing
  • Human and organisational factors in quality and safety
    • User interface design (Tang lecture on YouTube)
    • Organisational memory
    • Learning from experience
    • Change management
  • Formal representation of data and knowledge
    • Controlled vocabularies, “ontologies”
    • Applying knowledge to data: logic and description logics, decision theory, guidelines and workflows
the key challenges adapted from coiera p 104
The key challenges(adapted from Coiera p 104)
  • How do we apply knowledge to achieve a particular clinical objective?
  • How do we decide how to achieve a particular clinical objective?
  • How do we improve our ability to deliver clinical services?
medical research clinical practice
Medical research, clinical practice

Understanding

diseases and

their treatment

Develop

and test treatments

Health

Records

Service delivery,

performance assessment

Ensure right

Patients receive

right intervention

first
First …
  • Capture your data, accurately, completely
  • Make the data readily accessible

Health

Records

the paper record pros
The paper record, pros
  • Portable
  • Familiar and easy to use
    • Exploits everyday skills of visual search, browsing etc
  • Natural: “direct” access to clinical data
    • Handwriting
    • Charts, graphs
    • Drawings, images…
the paper record cons
The paper record: cons
  • Can only be used for one task at a time
    • If 2 people need notes one must wait
    • Can lead to long waits (unavailable up to 30% of time in some studies)
  • Records can get lost
  • Consume space
  • Large individual records are hard to use
  • Fragile and susceptible to damage
  • Environmental cost
electronic health records
Electronic health records
  • An electronic health record is a repository of information about a single person in a medical setting, including clinical, demographic and other data.
  • The repository resides in a system specifically designed to support users by
    • providing accessibility to complete and accurate data
    • may include services to provide alerts, reminders, links to medical knowledge and other aids to clinical practice.
functions of the ehr 1
Functions of the EHR (1)
  • Supports structured data collection using a defined vocabulary.
  • Accessible at any or all times by authorized individuals.
  • Contains a problem list - patient’s clinical problems and current status
  • Supports systematic measurement and recording of datato promote precise and routine assessment of the outcomes of patient care
  • States the logical basis for all diagnoses or conclusions as a means of documenting the clinical rationale for decisions about the management of the patient’s care.
functions of the ehr 2
Functions of the EHR (2)
  • Can be linked with other clinical records of a patient—from various settings and time periods—to provide a longitudinal (i.e. lifelong) record of events that may have influenced a person’s health.
  • Can assist the process of clinical problem solving by providing clinicians with decision analysis tools, clinical reminders, prognostic risk assessment and other clinical aids.
  • Can be linked to both local and remote databases of knowledge, literature and bibliography or administrative databases and systems so that such information is readily available to assist practitioners in decision making.
  • Addresses patient data confidentiality.
  • Can help practitioners and health care institutions manage the quality and costs of care.
electronic health records pros
Electronic health records: pros
  • Compact
  • Simultaneous use
  • Easily copied/archived
  • Portable (handheld and wireless devices)
  • Secure
  • Supports many other services
    • Decision support
    • Workflow management
    • Performance audits
    • Research
electronic health records cons
Electronic health records: cons
  • High capital investment
    • Hardware, software, operational costs
    • Transition from paper to computer
  • Training requirements
  • Power outs – the whole system goes down!
  • Continuing security debate
    • Stealing one paper record is easy, 20 is harder, 10,000 effectively impossible – the security risks are very different for electronic data
service architecture view
Service architecture view

Chronic

care

services

Acute

services

Primary

Care

services

Communication &

Coordination

services

Point of

care

services

Search and

analysis

services

Clinical data

“Organisational

Memory”

Federated

EHR

Terminologies

Ontologies

Clinical

guideline

repository

Clinical

trials

repository

medical record structures 1
Medical record structures (1)
  • Integrated record
    • Data are recorded and presented chronologically around episodes of care, following the sequence of events, encounters and actions associated with the patient’s medical needs.
  • Source oriented record
    • organized around the organization of the healthcare service, with separate sections for medical notes, nursing notes, laboratory data, radiological results etc. No concept of a clinical task or process in this form of data recording.
medical record structures 2
Medical record structures (2)
  • Protocol-oriented record
    • Often used when a patient is being treated according to a standard treatment plan or pathway. Highly task-oriented, providing useful guidance for what needs to be done at any point in treatment, but providing little overview of the patient’s needs.
  • Problem-oriented record
    • Organised around a list of the patient’s medical problems, which is used to index the whole record, and an integrated treatment plan. The plan describes what is to be done for each problem, with all associated progress notes, lab tests, medications etc linked to the initiating problem.
point of care services
Point of care services
  • Clinical documentation
  • Patient administration
  • Search services
  • Decision support
  • Workflow management
  • Communication and coordination