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The Outside Interests of the Cultural Elite. Dave Griffiths University Of Manchester/CRESC. Elite studies. History of the social elite largely history of their financial structures Elite controls more than economic climate Similar groups sitting in all top public positions

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the outside interests of the cultural elite

The Outside Interests of the Cultural Elite

Dave Griffiths

University Of Manchester/CRESC

elite studies
Elite studies
  • History of the social elite largely history of their financial structures
  • Elite controls more than economic climate
  • Similar groups sitting in all top public positions
  • Cultural positions are hives of elite activity
  • Influence of cultural producers places them at centre of bourgeois power
types of capital
Types of capital
  • Social Capital – associations and networks with individuals and institutions
  • Cultural Capital – knowledge of cultural practices and norms
  • Economic Capital – ownership of cash, property or other economical position
  • Symbolic Capital – reputation, skills and expertise respected by others
cultural capital
Cultural capital
  • Different capitals unlock different doors
  • Cultural capital is difficult to attain
  • US emerging elites buy positions on cultural boards to gain cultural capital (Ostrower: 1995)
  • In the UK, cultural boards are public boards, so acceptance cannot be bought
dataset
Dataset
  • Department of Media, Culture and Sport (DCMS) executive quangos
  • 45 agencies employing 15,000 individuals and spending £1.2 billion a year (2005/06)
  • Address all forms of UK culture from museums and galleries, regional cultural agencies, public access to literature and music, sports, films, architecture and heritage – even drinking and gambling
sample
Sample
  • 767 individuals
  • 63% male, average age 58
  • Over 11,000 pieces of information
  • Collected from April 2006 to January 2007

Press releases, websites, annual reports, registers of members’ interests, Who’s Who, Debrett’s People of Today …

embeddedness values
Embeddedness values

Closeness Centrality (how many steps a board is from all others)

multiplied by

Betweenness Centrality (how many other shortest paths pass through it)

Produces an embeddedness value of between 0 and 1.

These values have been averaged out for each type of quango, and multiplied by 1,000 for display purposes.

Outliers, or those with no betweenness, have a value of 0.

organisational differences
Organisational differences
  • Regional organisations utilise social capital to generate cultural capital
  • National organisations utilise cultural capital to generate social capital
  • London museums utilise cultural capital to generate social and cultural capital
culture west midlands social capital
Culture West Midlands’ social capital
  • Local Government Association
  • mac (2)
  • Millennium Point Trust
  • Motionhouse Dance Theatre
  • Music Educational Council
  • National Association of Youth Orchestras
  • National Trust
  • New Victoria Theatre
  • Sound Futures
  • Symphony Hall Birmingham
  • Total Theatre Network
  • Tourism West Midlands
  • Trans Europe Halles
  • Warwick Arts Centre
  • West Midlands Historic Environment Forum
  • West Midlands Life
  • Albion Emsemble
  • aliss
  • Artix Arts Centre – Bromsgrove
  • Association of European Conservatoires
  • Belmont Arts Centre – Shropshire
  • Birmingham Arts Marketing (2)
  • Birmingham Association of Youth Clubs
  • Birmingham Conservatories
  • Birmingham Educational Arts Forum
  • Birmingham Hippodrome
  • Birmingham Royal Ballet
  • Black Country Touring
  • British Double Reed Society
  • Connexions
  • John Fenny Charitable Trust
  • Herefordshire Cultural Consortium
aerc s social capital
AERC’s social capital
  • Alcohol Concern
  • Centre for Information on Beverage Alcohol
  • Chinese National Healthy Eating Living Centre
  • Diaego Foundation
  • International Agency on Tobacco and Health
  • International Cochrane Collaboration
  • Royal Colleges of the Physician of the UK (Public Health Faculty)
  • Motivational Interviewing Trainers International
  • National Heart Forum
  • Portland Group
  • TACADE
natural history museum s social capital
Natural History Museum’s social capital
  • MacMillan Trust Observatory
  • MCC
  • National Botanical Garden of Wales
  • New West End Company
  • River and Rowing Museum – Henley-on-Thames
  • Royal Albert Hall
  • Royal Botanical Garden – Edinburgh
  • Royal Sun Alliance West End Board
  • Royal United Services Institute
  • St Andrews Prize
  • St-Martins-in-the-Field
  • Shaw Trust
  • UK-China 21st Century Group
  • Wellcome Trust
  • West End Commission
  • Wildscreen Trust
  • Windsor Leadership Trust
  • WorkAid Ltd
  • 21st Century Tiger
  • British Ecological Society (2)
  • Buckinghamshire Foundation
  • Campaign for Science and Engineering
  • Central & Cecil Housing Trust
  • Darwin Trust
  • Dolphin Square Charitable Trust
  • Earth Centre
  • Environmental Advice Centre
  • EURISY
  • Friends of Arundel Cricket Club
  • Gardens Pension Trustees Limited
  • Helmholtz Gemeinschaft – Germany
  • Intellectual Property Bar Association
  • International Fellowship Committee
  • Italgas Prize for Energy and Environment
  • IUCN Species Survival Commission
  • Kennedy Memorial Fund
  • London First
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Social position is important for London’s museums
  • Social positions are important for national bodies
  • Social capital is important for regional bodies
  • National institutions are not overly ‘national’
  • Are UK museums less democratic than their US counterparts?

david.griffiths@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk