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Zimmerman and West: Basic Findings. Interruptions. Interruptions are generally considered to be violations of the rules of conversation. Particularly in cultures such as the United States, where a study was carried out at the UCLA, it is important that the gap between turns be kept short. .

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interruptions
Interruptions

Interruptions are generally considered to be violations of the rules of conversation. Particularly in cultures such as the United States, where a study was carried out at the UCLA, it is important that the gap between turns be kept short.

overlaps
Overlaps

This may lead to overlaps at the end of the first speaker's turn and the beginning of the next speaker's turn. During the turn of the first speaker the addressee will provide agreement or encouragement through short interjections.

evidence of interruptions overlaps
Evidence of Interruptions/Overlaps.

Extract of Mixed sex Conversation – War in Iraq

  • Do you even remember why were in er, Iraq?
  • It was somethin’ to do with that erm, 9/11 thing. Well, what I can remember it was a erm operation to try and stop that Bin Laden fella’. To stop terrorism.
  • Well it hasn’t worked! But if they cant find him what's the point? Cos all of our bloody soldiers are getting killed over there most of them are only young lads!
  • I know but its not like years ago when they got forced into the army. They’ve all done it out of their own choice. They should know if there going in the er army then its likely summats going to happen.

1 = Nana 2=Granddad

mixed sex conversations
Mixed–Sex Conversations

This table shows the interruptions/overlaps in the whole conversation. It follows the stereotypical conventions for Overlaps with males dominating but as we get to Interruptions the female in the conversation is more dominant. This is unusual as it doesn’t follow conventions and this could be for many reasons but I would say that this is due to the age of the speakers, and how they view social interactions.

evidence of interruptions overlaps6
Evidence of Interruptions/Overlaps

Single Sex Conversation - Exams

  • How do you reckon you did with your maths?
  • Not to bad I actually like the questions we got.
  • 1. Well I knew everything but one thing.
  • 2. Yeah well so did I.
  • 1. I think I’ve easily done ….
  • 2. I know I got the best marks
  • Well am not looking forward the non calculator paper next
  • OH next week!
  • 1. What days it on again?
  • 2. Haven’t got a clue...
same sex conversations
Same-Sex Conversations

Same-sex conversations Female Female Total

Overlaps 4 3 7

Interruptions 11 9 14

This table shows that in same sex conversations, especially all female ones, encounters are fairly equal which goes along with the order that Zimmerman and West proposed.

summary
Summary

These conversation show that males are mainly more dominant in mixed sex conversations which can be seen as a way of gaining authority. Where as power is fairly equal in same-sex conversations. It was shown however that in all male conversations there were more interruptions/overlaps than in all-female conversations.