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Key Activities of an ARMS Service. Dr Samantha Bowe Clinical Psychologist / Clinical Lead for EDIT Services BSTMH NHS Trust. Acknowledgements. Salford EDIT Team Dr Sophie Parker Maria Kaltsi Clinical Psychologist Assistant Psychologist Rory Byrne Sarah Ford

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key activities of an arms service

Key Activities of an ARMS Service

Dr Samantha BoweClinical Psychologist / Clinical Lead for EDIT ServicesBSTMH NHS Trust

  • Salford EDIT Team

Dr Sophie Parker Maria Kaltsi

Clinical Psychologist Assistant Psychologist

Rory Byrne Sarah Ford

Service User Representative Assistant Psychologist

Jane Foster

PA/ Team Secretary

  • Dr Paul French / Prof Tony Morrison

Associate Directors in Early Intervention

identification young people at risk of psychosis
Training with potential referrers to help recognise ‘at-risk’ signs

Information: attenuated route / BLIPs / family route / service delivery / leaflets for client

Primary Care Checklist for guidance

Assessment using specific ‘at-risk’ measure e.g. CAARMS

Clear feedback to referrers of outcome

Identification Young People At-Risk of Psychosis



Primary Care Guidelines for Identification of Suspected or First Episode Psychosis


0161 772 4350



EI team

0161 745 2254

Clearly first episode



If immediate risk

Crisis Team

evidence based interventions
Evidence Based Interventions
  • Preventative approach with developing evidence base
  • Important to draw on evidence base so far
  • Not automatically replicate existing models & treatments used in mental health (e.g. CMHT / EI)
  • Different client group – often younger, not yet made transition :- ethical issues
evidence based interventions7
Evidence Based Interventions
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Effective at preventing transition to psychosis
  • Transition rates (12 months post CT): cognitive therapy: 6%

monitoring alone: 22%

If no intervention at all: Yung et al. (1998) – 40%@ 6mths

  • Salford EDIT 2006-2007: 8% transition rate
  • Evidence base for psychosis, anxiety, depression etc. Helpful for false positive group.
evidence based interventions8
Evidence Based Interventions
  • Collaborative, normalising, individual problem list & goals, formulation to inform intervention strategies.
  • Acceptable intervention for clients: low drop out rate in EDIE I
drop out rates
Drop Out Rates

% of dropouts

McGorry et al. 2002

[CBT plus risperidone]

Morrison et al. 2004


McGlashan et al. 2006


case management
Case Management
  • Social difficulties increase risk of psychosis & other mental health problems
  • Case management located in EDIT
  • Promotes engagement
  • Assist & promote use of mainstream services (e.g. housing, benefit agencies, connexions). Balance help with promoting independence.
anti psychotic medication
Anti-Psychotic Medication
  • Lack of evidence base so far
  • PRIME study: McGlashen et al. (2003)

olanzapine 5-15mg a day for 1 year, 12 mth follow up

Transition rates: olanzapine = 16 %

placebo = 37%

  • Side effects / ethical issues
  • If not effective, less compliance if make transition?
  • Follow International Clinical Practice Guidelines for Early Psychosis (2005)
anti psychotic medication12
Anti-Psychotic Medication
  • Anti-psychotics not usually indicated unless person meets criteria for psychosis
  • Exceptions: severe suicidal risk, rapid deterioration, treatment of depression ineffective, aggression poses risk to others
  • Low dose for trial period
  • EDIT: if prescribed anti-psychotic contact referrer to discuss rationale / info. packs
  • Training slot: SPR’s in Trust: info. packs / International Clinical Practice Guidelines
  • Regularly repeat assessment measures

to Ensure effectiveness of interventions & monitor mental state over time

  • Monitoring offered up to 3 years even if not engaged with other aspects of service
  • Reduce DUP
  • If at-risk at monitoring appt. – booster sessions / or increase contact
  • Flexible: consent for face to face contact / phone or e-mail etc.
duration of untreated psychosis
Duration Of Untreated Psychosis
  • Greater length of time between onset of psychosis & receiving treatment the worse the prognosis
  • Average DUP 1 year (Barnes et al. 2000)
  • ARMS service can reduce DUP
  • EDIT: 25% referred onto to EI with undetected first episode psychosis
service user involvement
Service User Involvement
  • Service user feedback
  • EDIT: Service User Representative – consultancy role on service development

- interview panel for recruitment

- service user forum / research

- someone clients to speak to when deciding whether or not to be seen for assessment or therapy

interface with services
Interface with Services
  • Ensure effective interface between services

e.g. primary care, EI, CMHT’s, voluntary sector, A&E, CAMHS etc.

  • Co-working: clear guidelines written into protocols (e.g. CAMHS, EI)
  • EDIT: primary care, link into established services when appropriate (e.g. A&E, CMHT’s, EI etc)
  • Responsive to risk
family involvement
Family Involvement
  • Involvement of family / significant others for support & advice
  • With clients consent: regular feedback, psycho education, sharing of formulation, advice on how best to help, crisis plans / emergency no’s
  • Family intervention if appropriate
awareness raising
Awareness Raising
  • Awareness raising & education about psychosis in primary care, social care, voluntary sector, & education
  • Mental health promotional work in schools, colleges etc.
  • De-stigmatise psychosis: challenge misconceptions (increase likelihood of disclosure & positive response)
  • EDIT: currently providing staff training on range of mental health problems, not just on early signs of psychosis
core principles
Core Principles
  • Culture, age & gender sensitive

- 66% clients in EDIT under 21 yrs

  • Service user & family focused

- collaborative approach, individually tailored, based on clients’ ‘problem list’ & goals

- family involvement

  • Meaningful engagement based on assertive outreach model

- home visits, do not discharge due to non attendance, open door policy, flexible approach: e-mail, text etc.

core principles20
Core Principles
  • Low use of stigmatising settings

(youth friendly, age appropriate, primary care settings, home visits)

- Fear of going mad common – important to keep in primary care (if see within a MDT setting: can be frightening, increase distress, effect engagement)

- Service delivery in primary care setting (EDIT & GP) unless significant risk issues which require co-working with other services

  • Recovery based principles:

- meaningful activities

- valid social roles (college, work, relationships)

service user quotes
Service User Quotes
  • “Like this psychology session, I mean if I had to go out and come to see everybody, the psychologist and things like that, I wouldn’t go out of the house and that’s why I never got no where for years, but when the counsellor did get me in touch with the psychologist, I knew I’d stick with them because they’d do home visits, because I don’t go out and I need help, but I need someone to come to me because I can’t do it”.
service user quotes25
Service User Quotes
  • ‘like a dark cloud over your head, you can’t even sleep at night, just there thinking someone is going to come, I thought I was in a movie, I’m dreaming, but it’s not a dream’
  • ‘well, before I started to cut meself I’d think, “god, they’re just doing it for attention” but until you are actually in that situation you don’t understand what they are going through …you understand more then. You look at it in a different way’
service user quotes26
Service User Quotes
  • ‘if you have someone like that to talk to it’s a lot more helpful than if you don’t because if you don’t you’re just thinking you’re going really mad’
  • ‘basically you’re just going over the same thought, you’re going “am I crazy?” and then you’re going “well, I’m not” and it’s just a big circle and then you’re conflicting with yourself but if you have someone there they can explain, like you say it to them, they come back with a different answer, they don’t come back with the same one that you think all the time and it changes the circle, it changes the pattern’
service user quotes27
Service User Quotes
  • ‘yeah, I was like bubbly and confident and not shy and stuff like that. Because when I started to first cut meself I was losing all me confidence when I was depressed and I didn’t want to go out, I didn’t want to do me hair, I just wanted to stay in bed all day and that was when I kept on cutting meself and then like I’d been on anti depressants for a bit, (therapist) came here a few times, spoke to her, it was just all coming back, all me confidence coming back, just getting back to normal, how I used to be like before, y’know before it all started,’
  • ‘I’m proud of myself, I’m very proud of myself, oh my God, I’ve done good, it’s not easy, you know that’
Parker, S., French, P., Kilcommons, A., & Shiers, D. (2007). Report on Early Detection and Intervention for Young People at Risk of Psychosis.

Parker, S. & French, P. (2007). Implementation Guide.

Hardy, K. & Morrison, A. P. 2007. The journey into and through EDIT - a qualitative exploration of the experiences of our clients. Unpublished Doctorate Thesis. University of Liverpool.

contact details
Contact Details

Dr Samantha Bowe

Clinical Psychologist / Clinical Lead for EDIT Services

0161 772 4350