Evolution of parental care. Parental care does not always take place. In many species (e.g. clams, barnacles, many fish) eggs are shed into the water and abandoned. Similarly, turtle young are on their own once they hatch. Costs and benefits of parental care.
Figure shows B/C benefit to cost ratio of investing in the current offspring.
Benefit is measured in benefit to current offspring and cost is measured
in reduction in future offspring.
Young free-tailed bats at a creche.
indicated in blue.
closely mimic calls of host fairy-wrens.
Shining Bronze Cuckoo which rarely
parasitizes fairy wrens does not
resemble fairy-wren chick and does not
sound like it either.
no tape played. Cuckoo is delivery rate when cuckoo begging call
played. Reed warbler brood is delivery rate when tape of
a brood of reed warblers in played.
fight while their parent
ignores the behavior.
older chick (under its parent)
has driven its smaller sibling from
The nest where it will die of
exposure and starvation.