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Twomey & Jennings BUSINESS LAW. Chapter 38 Equal Employment Opportunity Law. Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, forbids discrimination on the basis of: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The EEOC administers the act. .

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twomey jennings business law

Twomey & JenningsBUSINESS LAW

Chapter 38

Equal Employment

Opportunity Law

civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, forbids discrimination on the basis of:
    • race,
    • color,
    • religion,
    • sex, or
    • national origin.
  • The EEOC administers the act.
disparate treatment
Disparate Treatment
  • Exists where employer treats some individuals less favorably than others because of their race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
  • Proof of the employer’s discriminatory motive is essential.
disparate impact

Griggs v Duke Power Co. (1971).

Disparate Impact
  • Employment practices that make no reference to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, but have an adverse effect on the protected group.
    • The employer must show that there is a job-related business necessity for the practice in question.
    • Lack of intent is not a defense.
title vii violations

Pollard v E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Co. (2001) Is “front pay” subject to a cap on damages?

Title VII Violations
  • If a state EEO agency or the EEOC is not able to resolve the case, the EEOC issues a right-to-sue letter that enables the person claiming a Title VII violation to sue in a federal district court.
title vii violations7
Title VII Violations
  • An affirmative action plan is legal under Title VII provided there is a voluntary “plan” justified as a remedial measure and provided it does not unnecessarily hinder the interests of whites.
protected classes and exceptions
Protected Classes and Exceptions
  • Race and Color.
  • Religion.
  • Sex.
  • Sexual Harassment (employer’s may be vicariously liable for supervisors).
    • Quid Pro Quo cases.
    • Hostile Work Environment.
    • Non-supervisors
protected classes and exceptions9

Fragante v City and County of Honolulu. (1989) Why was the Plaintiff’s complaint dismissed?

Protected Classes and Exceptions
  • National Origin.
    • Lack of English Language.
exceptions

UAW v Johnson Controls (1991) Did the Defendant discriminate against ‘fertile’ women?

Exceptions
  • Employers have several defenses they may raise in a Title VII case to explain differences in employment conditions.
    • (1) bona fide occupational qualifications reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the business,
exceptions cont d
Exceptions (cont’d)
  • Employers have several defenses they may raise in a Title VII case to explain differences in employment conditions.
    • (2) job-related professionally developed ability tests, and
    • (3) bona fide seniority systems.
affirmative action and reverse discrimination
Affirmative Action and Reverse Discrimination
  • Employers may have permissible Affirmation Action Plans:
    • Plan is remedial in nature, voluntary and temporary.
  • Reverse Discrimination.
    • AAP may discriminate against non-minorities.
other equal opportunity laws

Rhodes v Guiberson Oil Tools (1996).

Other Equal Opportunity Laws
  • Under the Equal Pay Act (EPA), employers must not pay employees of one gender a lower wage rate than the rate paid to employees of the other gender for substantially equal work.
  • Workers over 40 years old are protected from discrimination by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA).
slide14

Sutton v United Airlines (1999) Why was Sutton’s case dismissed?

ADA
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibit employment discrimination against persons with disabilities.
  • Under the ADA, employers must make reasonable accommodations without undue hardship on them to enable individuals with disabilities to work.