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New Zealand Underwater Hockey Level 2 Referee Course By: Murray Brooks – Level 3 Referee PowerPoint Presentation
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New Zealand Underwater Hockey Level 2 Referee Course By: Murray Brooks – Level 3 Referee. Course Instructor: Murray Brooks. Started playing Underwater Hockey in 1972 Played in 44 New Zealand National Championships Began refereeing on a regular basis starting in 1982

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New Zealand Underwater Hockey Level 2 Referee Course By: Murray Brooks – Level 3 Referee


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    1. New Zealand Underwater Hockey Level 2 Referee Course By: Murray Brooks – Level 3 Referee

    2. Course Instructor: Murray Brooks • Started playing Underwater Hockey in 1972 • Played in 44 New Zealand National Championships • Began refereeing on a regular basis starting in 1982 • Played on the New Zealand Masters team from 1992-2000 World Championships • Refereed from 1982 and 2006 World Championships • CMAS Referee Director for 20 years 1986 - 2006.

    3. Course Expectations • The course will be approximately 3 hours in length (depending on questions). • You must be present for the full course (no leaving early to feed your dog, or otherwise) • I encourage you to ask questions and participate in discussions / demonstrations to get the most out of the course. • Exam will be written after a short break at the end of the course.

    4. Goals and Objectives • Train and certify new officials for Underwater Hockey • To complete 3 hours of theory (this course) and approximately 12 hours of practical refereeing / timekeeping / scorekeeping • To further develop a clear understanding of the rules and conduct of an Underwater Hockey Match

    5. Testing and Certification • Must have taken a recent Level 1 referee course • Must attend full class for Level 2 eligibility • Must pass written exam with minimum 75% pass • Must referee a minimum of 10 games + (5 as Deck referee, 5 as timekeeper / scorekeeper) at tournament level (Nationals, Zone, or World level) • Must pass 5 practical observations by Level 3 ref, or Chief Ref NZ • Must referee a minimum of 5 games per year at a regional or higher level tournament to maintain yearly active status. • Must keep logbook (paper or electronic) of all games reffed and approved by Level 2, 3, or Chief Ref to maintain active status.

    6. Benefits to becoming a Level 2 Referee • Clearer understanding of the game in terms of the rules and what is / is not allowed • Clearer understanding to why as a player you may be penalized for your actions during a game • Opportunities to travel to tournaments as a designated referee to represent your club / province / country • Greater experience and recognition in the hockey community

    7. Types of Officials

    8. Level 2 Referee Expectations • Have refereed 50 games at all levels • Feel confident with calls and are comfortable with the rules • Things are not “black and white” anymore – more grey area situations occur and you must be able to think through larger picture • Making calls based on events leading up to, including, and beyond the infraction • More knowledge on the technical side (i.e. – weights / measurements) – things you will need when in charge of hosting / running a tournament • Evaluation process – Assessment of your abilities while refereeing, appearing confident and composed during the match, making difficult decisions under pressure • Learning how to conduct yourself in / out of the pool • Quality and accuracy of calls made – NOT QUANTITY

    9. Referees: Keeping Control A good referee does not “control the game” but rather keeps the game “in control”. • A referee is an arbitrator. A good referee is always in control. • Control consists of: • Concentration • Knowing the rules • Positioning • Fitness • Communication • Composure

    10. Chief Referee (or Deck Referee) • In charge of all aspects and conduct of game • Presides at coin toss if not already prescribed. • Signals start of periods, or recommencement of play • Signals to timekeepers and scorekeepers the cap number of penalized players or goal scorers • Signals reasons for penalties and time of penalty • Watches for rule infringements on surface and pool deck (ie substitutions / surface obstruction) • Confirms score sheet at end of the match

    11. 2 or 3 referees are each responsible for certain sections of pool (on a rotating basis) Inspects all playing equipment before game Enforce rules at all times Signal chief ref to stop play by use of hand signals Signal chief ref of penalties, type and cap number of penalized player Placing the puck after a goal is scored, penalties, etc and ensure puck is placed correctly to restart Make sure goal frames are in correct locations at beginning of match Stopping play immediately if an injury occurs and assist injured player to side of pool Watch other referee for signals to stop play Check and verify score sheet at end of game and sign Water Referee

    12. Scorekeeper • Make sure equipment is on hand before game, score sheets, pencils, p.a. system • Ensure all players names are on score sheet with correct cap numbers • Make sure all other information is on sheet - stick colors, team captains, etc. • Ensure scoreboard shows proper scores and names of teams • Assist timekeeper in penalty timing if necessary • Sign and verify score sheet at end of game and announce result

    13. Typical Game Scoresheet

    14. Ensure all timing equipment is in place and working at start of game. Enough stop clocks to time at least 4 separate penalised players. Ensure signaling devices are present and working at start of game Time all play and indicate completion of time periods to chief referee Time penalized players and indicate to chief referee when they can re enter the water. Time starts when player is in seat and game restarts. Stop time only at request of chief referee Make sure that penalty time is stopped at half time and restarted at start of 2nd half Signal end of half time and game Ensure clocks are visible to public and players if necessary Make sure penalty box is clearly marked / visible to players Collaborate with scorekeeper if necessary to assist with multiple penalties, etc Sign and verify score / penalty sheet at end of game Timekeeper

    15. Marks of a good Referee • 1/ The Referee’s main role is to administer the laws, within the confines of the playing area. Remember: You are there to officiate and not participate in the game. • 2/ Fair: It is the duty of the Referee to apply the Laws of the game fairly and consistently, without variation or omission. • 3/ Friendly Attitude: A Referee should always maintain a friendly attitude towards players, coaches, other officials and spectators. All duties should be carried out in a professional rather than an authoritative manner. A friendly smile is helpful. • 4/ Fair and Firm in Decision and Honest in and out of water: By these actions the Referee will instil confidence in others that they will be fair and impartial at all times. • 5/ Expert Knowledge of Rules: Infractions to rules should be identified immediately with proper notification given promptly to players. • 6/ Positive Signals from Sounding Device: The Chief Referee should keep the signalling device control in their hand while the puck is in play. All calls should be made quickly and sharply following an infraction of the rules.

    16. Marks of a good Referee • Instant Hand Signals: The official hand signals should be used at all times, and executed in a deliberate manner without exhibitionism. • Controlled Emotions: A Referee should never show emotion in any situation. They should never leave their official stand. If need be they should call a player to the officials stand. • Neat Appearance: A Referee should always wear the official uniform, and it should be neat and clean. They should stand in an erect position. Conservative manner and dress both in and out of the water will help instil confidence the Referee in others. • Sound Judgment: A Referee should ALWAYS back their own judgement. It is extremely important that a Referee is not swayed by the crowd, or by players. • Consistent Calling: A Referee should maintain a level of officiating consistent with previous decisions made during the game, as well as with the level of play. • Punctuality: A Referee should be ready to officiate at least 15 minutes before scheduled time, to allow time for all required pre-game checks, and a talk to team Captains and coaches if deemed desirable. You should always endeavour to get games started on time. • Fitness: A Referee should be fit enough to keep up with play at all times.

    17. DON’TS’ FOR OFFICIALS • Don’t take your eyes off the play (too many officials are spectators). • Don’t take anything for granted (and expect anything). • Don’t explain your decision (you don’t need to justify yourself, and you will only lose if you try, not gain). • Don’t argue with players or coaches (even if you win, you lose). • Don’t talk back to spectators (your focus should be the game, and when you start talking back to spectators, you lose your game concentration). • Don’t look for trouble (a kind word will save a game). • Don’t talk with your snorkel in your mouth (it sounds funny). • Don’t officiate without proper equipment (you owe it to yourself and to the game to perform well). • Don’t hold idle conversation with players (it may be misinterpreted as favouritism and cause trouble). • Don’t use unnecessary antics (you will lose the player’s respect).

    18. The Game Duration of the game: Regional or international games 33 minutes, 15 minute halves, 3 minute break/half time Other non competition games consist of two 10 minute halves, 2 minute half times At half time the teams change ends Sudden Death and extra time as per tournament rules The Team: A team squad may consist of up to 12 players, however The playing team is limited to a maximum of 10 players, 6 in the water The other 4 may be used as substitutes at any time during the game (rules for subbing dealt with under rules)

    19. Setting up the game: Equipment Inspections: • Masks – Must have nose bridge, no one piece masks. Tempered Glass only, no glass. No sharp edges • Snorkels – No sharp edges, no metal, must be flexible tube. • Fins – No sharp edges, fin must flex (no ridged fin), no diver fins with buckles • Gloves – No foreign devices in / outside of glove (such as metal splint, etc) designed to make the glove hard potentially causing damage to players. Glove color must strongly contrast the players stick and the puck. Glove colors NOT allowed are Yellow or Orange (or the same colour as the puck) • Sticks – Uniform Black or White color only (not faded), tape on stick must be black or white, no splinters or sharp edges, stick must conform to standards as per the CMAS guidelines. (length / width, etc) • Ear Protection – Both ears must be covered (recommended polo caps, or wrestling headgear with bather cap) and must have distinct number visible • Numbers – Must be unique from other players • Other – Knee / Elbow pads must be checked for rigidness – must be soft / flexible. No weight belts allowed. • Anything beyond standard equipment must be approved by Chief / Tournament referee.

    20. The Playing Field

    21. Playing Area Layout

    22. The Goal The Goal: Is opened ended Is 3 meters long Vertical lines mark the outer edge of the goal volume area

    23. Equipment used in the game Each player is equipped with the following equipment as shown: • Mask • Snorkel • Fins • Cap • Mouth Guard • Hand Protection (Glove • Stick • The game puck is approximately 3 lbs of lead encased in a plastic shell.

    24. Setting up the game: Equipment Inspections: • Masks – Must have nose bridge, no one piece masks. Tempered Glass only, no glass. No sharp edges • Snorkels – No sharp edges, no metal, must be flexible tube. • Fins – No sharp edges, fin must flex (no ridged fin), no diver fins with buckles • Gloves – No foreign devices in / outside of glove (such as metal splint, etc) designed to make the glove hard potentially causing damage to players. Glove color must strongly contrast the players stick and the puck. Glove colors NOT allowed are Yellow or Orange (or the same colour as the puck) • Sticks – Uniform Black or White color only (not faded), tape on stick must be black or white, no splinters or sharp edges, stick must conform to standards as per the CMAS guidelines. (length / width, etc) • Ear Protection – Both ears must be covered (recommended polo caps, or wrestling headgear with bather cap) and must have distinct number visible • Numbers – Must be unique from other players • Other – Knee / Elbow pads must be checked for rigidness – must be soft / flexible. No weight belts allowed. • Anything beyond standard equipment must be approved by Chief / Tournament referee.

    25. The Puck • Diameter of 80mm +/- 4mm • Thickness of 30mm +4mm / -2mm • Weight 1.3kg +/- 0.2 kg • Orange / Pink pucks are preferred colors

    26. Pool Layout / Officials Positions Timekeeper / Scorekeeper CR Penalty Box Penalty Box WR WR WR Team Sub Box Team Sub Box • The referee positions at the start of game / after a goal has been scored. • The center water referee ensures all water referees are in place, watching the end wall players, and signaling they are ready for “Start Of Play” • Once the center water referee sees the 2 end line water referees are in place they will raise their hand indicating all water referees are ready to start play. The Chief Referee will raise their hand to signal the same and then start the play.

    27. Signals / Rules / Positioning – The guidelines for a referee • When making hand signals during the game make them crisp and clear • Know your rules so that there is no delay in making the correct call – it should be a reflex. • Poor positioning typically means poor refereeing. Be close to the play so that you have a clear view of the surroundings. • Try to be on the bottom or mid-water as often as possible so you are closer to the play. This will give you a better view and a better chance of seeing an infraction / making the right call.

    28. Review of Hand Signals

    29. Ready to Start / Stop Play • Ready To Start – I’m signaling that I am ready for play to start, because the puck is correctly placed and the referees are in the right place and ready to start • Stop Play – I’m signaling to stop the play because I have seen an infringement, or the puck has been played out of bounds.

    30. Time / Time Out • Time- I am signaling the end to a time period. It is either half or full time in a normal game, or the end of a period or game in overtime. • Time Out – I am signaling or acknowledging that a team has requested a 1 minute time out.

    31. Time Suspension (referee time out) / Call player to Referee • Time Suspension – I am signaling suspension of time due to exceptional circumstances – Note: Only the Chief Referee can have time officially stopped. • Call Player to Referee I am signaling a player to approach me so that I can speak with them.

    32. Goal / No Goal • Goal – I’m signaling that a goal has been scored and confirming the water referee’s call that they have seen a properly scored goal. (Note: Typically, the refs will hold up their index fingers first to confirm with one and another that they have seen the goal before making the official signal) • No Goal – I’m signaling no goal as I (or the water referee) have seen an infringement take place by the offensive team before the goal was scored.

    33. Goals The puck must completely pass through the goal volume as indicated in red and touch the back or bottom of the goal area having only been propelled by the playing area of the stick

    34. No Goals Here the puck does NOT completely pass through the goal volume as indicated in red or touch the back or bottom of the goal area.

    35. Equal Puck • Equal Puck – I’m signaling to both teams that an equal puck has been awarded and to setup for a faceoff. • Note: All players must be on the surface when the start of play is signaled. As a Chief ref, quickly count the caps and make sure both teams are on their respective side of the line WR

    36. Advantage Puck • A sequence of 4 distinct, crisp signals. The first is STOP PLAY. • Next, you make the signal for the infringement (i.e. – Obstruction, free arm, etc) and then push the offending team back 3 metres from where the puck is set and then form the imaginary line with the water referees. • Lastly, you will confirm the imaginary line is set with the water referees and then lift your opposite arm indicating you are ready to begin play again. Note: Players can be on the surface or underwater when the start of play is signaled. The advantage team must take possession of the puck within 5 seconds once play has resumed.

    37. Illegally advancing the puck / Stick Infringement • The player has advanced the puck illegally with the glove, free hand, or body. (i.e. – uses glove to advance puck up the wall) • The player has used the stick illegally in some form (i.e. pushes opponents stick first before touching the puck)

    38. Stick Infringement - Correct

    39. Stick Infringements - Incorrect

    40. Stick Infringements - Fouls Note: First contact must ALWAYS be with the puck otherwise it is a stick infringement foul as shown above.

    41. Spot the Fouls

    42. Illegal Use of Free Arm / Obstruction • The player has illegally used his / her free arm (i.e. – pushes off a player to gain an advantage) • I’m signaling to the player that they have performed one of the following offenses – Obstruction, Barging, Shepherding, Blocking.

    43. Obstruction - Examples White does not have possession of the puck and is blocking black from access to the puck. This is one example of Obstruction.

    44. Obstruction - Examples White has possession of the puck and the middle player is blocking black from access to the puck. This is another example of Obstruction.

    45. Obstruction - Examples White has possession of the puck and black is using his arm or stick to slow down the white players forward motion. This is again another example of Obstruction.

    46. Spot the Fouls

    47. Surface Fouls for Chief Refs The most common fouls you will see as a chief referee are the following: • Obstruction (players crawling over other players on the surface, or interference with another player) • Illegal substitutions • False Starts (equal / advantage pucks, on penalty shots) • Rough play (pushing / shoving / fighting) You need to watch the surface very closely at all times throughout the game – PAY ATTENTION!!

    48. Insert obstruction videos here

    49. Illegally Stopping Puck / Out of Bounds • I’m signaling to the player that they have illegally stopped the puck with anything other than the stick (i.e. fin, body part) – intentionally or otherwise. • I’m signaling to the player that they have shot the puck out of the playing area.