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Global Marketing Management Global Distribution Decisions

Global Marketing Management Global Distribution Decisions

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Global Marketing Management Global Distribution Decisions

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  1. Global Marketing ManagementGlobal Distribution Decisions MKGT 3231-001 Fall 2015 Mrs. Tamara L. Cohen Class #22

  2. REMINDERGuest Speaker: Thursday, Nov.12 • Attendance is mandatory (sign in) • Be on time • No screens • No hats • Bring (and display) your name tent • General principles discussed during the guest speaker’s presentation will be included on the next exam.

  3. Case #3 due Nov.24AIDS, Condoms, & Carnival Requirements for each TEAM Case Write-up: • 4 - 6 pages, typed & double-spaced • Review on course web site: “Case Studies: How to write a great CASE STUDY” • Pay attention to grading sheet. • Work with a DIFFERENT partner from before. Use headings

  4. Group Project presentations will be on: Thursday, Dec.3 Tuesday, Dec.8 Tuesday, Dec.15 You may request your presentation date; give 1st & 2nd preferences. Make requests by 8 am, Thursday, Nov.19. GROUP PROJECTSREMEMBERHand in on your Presentation day :Final Report (hard copy & soft copy)Presentation (hard copy & soft copy) Each Group’s Presentation should be 15 minuteslong + 3 minutes Q & A. Remember attendance is mandatory at all presentation sessions.

  5. KEY TERMS Wholesalers Retailers Hypermarket Planogram

  6. KEY CONCEPTS Distribution structure Passage of ownership Middlemen Channel length Just-in-Time Inventory Management E-commerce Walmart’s “RETAILINK”

  7. Channel-of-Distribution Structures All consumer & industrial products go through a distribution process: • physical handling & distribution of goods • passage of ownership • buying & selling negotiations between producers & middlemen • buying & selling negotiations between middlemen & customers Each country market has distribution structure • goods pass from producer to user

  8. Import-Oriented Distribution Structure Import-oriented = traditional distribution • importer controls fixed supply of goods • sells limited supply of goods at high prices to small number of affluent customers • demand > supply • customer seeks supply from limited number of middlemen • distribution systems are local • few countries fit this import-oriented model today • contrasts with mass distribution philosophy

  9. Japanese Distribution Structure = most effective non-tariff barrier 4 distinguishing features: • dominated by many small middlemen dealing with many small retailers • channel control by manufacturers • business philosophy shaped by unique culture • laws protect foundation of system (= small retailer)

  10. Japanese Business Philosophy • emphasizes loyalty, harmony, friendship • supports long-term dealer-supplier relationships • retail cost of Japanese consumer goods among highest in world • Japanese law gives small retailer huge advantage over development of larger stores

  11. USA vs JapaneseDistribution Systeme.g. auto parts

  12. Changes in Japanese Distribution System Ultimately only local merchants can make change happen. Changes due to: • Structural Impediments Initiative - remove impediments to trade between USA & Japan • Deregulation - helping remove impediments • Walmart (Seiyu) - overcome management resistance & consumers equating low price with low quality (recession helped), no appeal for bulk deals, increased direct importing, rearranged space, no more weekly specials rather every day low prices • “New” retailers - forcing change • Internet - suppliers & retailers can seek cheapest prices in global market, so harder for middlemen to retain control. Konbini (conven-ience stores) offer Internet features (pay bills, bank, purchase travel packages, music, & merchandise) at in-store terminals or from home.

  13. Trends: From Traditional to Modern Channel Structures Pressure to change from INSIDE & OUTSIDE countries. • European retailers merging with former competitors & in other countries to form Europe-wide enterprises e.g. super-markets Sainsbury + Esselunga; retailer Mango in NYC • foreign retailers attracted by high margins & prices • Internet is most important distribution trend • e-commerce e.g. Amazon.com, Dell.com, eBay, ALIBABA • 7-Eleven competes with FedEx & UPS (use convenience stores for pick-up points for Web orders)

  14. Channel Control: WHOLESALERS Manufacturers depend on WHOLESALERS for services to other members of distribution network: • financing • physical distribution • warehousing Manufacturers control wholesaler middlemen via: • Inventory financing– consignment, credit terms • Cumulative rebates– quantity, early payments, sales targets, services, specific inventory level maintenance, sales promo’s, loyalty, price policy maintenance, cooperation • Merchandise returns– sale or return • Promotional support– point of purchase (p.o.p.), advertising layouts, management education, in-store demo’s, etc. • inventory • promotion • payment collection

  15. What is a Hypermarket? • concept pioneered by Carrefour • ultra-supermarket + department store CHINA USA FRANCE

  16. = selling directly to consumer through mail, phone, door-to-door in markets where distribution systems are inadequate or irrelevant good for entrepreneurs good in very poor countries good in affluent markets mail order catalogs are form of direct marketing DIRECT Marketing

  17. Middleman Choices • home country middlemen • foreign-market middlemen • government-affiliated middlemen Agent middlemen • do not take title to goods • represent principal • arrange sales • work on commission • more manufacturer control • Merchant middlemen • take title to goods • buy & sell on their own account • less controllable • often low brand loyalty

  18. Home-Country Middlemen • Manufacturer’s retail stores e.g. Disney, Benetton • Global retailers e.g. IKEA, Costco, Walmart, Sears, Toys“R”Us • Export management companies - services include: researching foreign markets, assessing suitability of goods according to legal, trade and cultural norms, appointing distributors, exhibiting at int’l trade shows, export formalities, insurance, financing services, preparation of materials for foreign market. • Trading companies - accumulate, transport and distribute goods from many countries. Japanese trading companies (sogo sosha) since early 1700s, handle >$1 trillion annually (20% Japan’s GDP) • U.S. export trading companies - Export Trading Act lets producers of similar goods to form cooperative export trading companies • Complementary marketers - “piggybacking” - companies with extra capacity take on extra lines for international distribution • Manufacturer’s export agent - agent providing selling service for manufacturers; straight commission; similar service to export management company.

  19. Foreign-Country Middlemen International marketers may work directly with middlemen in foreign market: • Manufacturer’s representatives - agents take responsibility for goods in specified area • Foreign Distributors - merchant middleman; often has exclusivity • Foreign-country brokers - agents deal usually with commodities & foods • Managing agents & compradors - exclusive contract • Dealers - middlemen selling industrial goods or durables directly to customers • Import jobbers purchase goods from manufacturer & sell towholesalers, retailers & industrial customers. Wholesalers & retailers may import directly.

  20. Government-Affiliated Middlemen • Marketers must deal with governments in every country of world • Government purchasing offices • procure products, services & commodities for government use • work at federal, regional & local levels • Efficiency of public sector versus private sector • Walmart delivered aid better than FEMA after Hurricane Katrina • Macquarie Capital building tunnel in Elizabeth River Crossing project

  21. Channel ManagementConstruction of the Middleman Network • Locating • Selecting • screening • agreement • Motivating • Terminating • Controlling

  22. 6 Cs of Channel Strategy • Cost = cost ofdeveloping channel + cost of maintaining it • Capital requirements e.g. initial inventories on consignment • Control - more involvement means more control (!) • Coverage e.g. significant penetration in major population centers • Character - compatibility of channel to type of goods • Continuity - middlemen tend to have short-term relationships with vendors

  23. Walmart suppliers have electronic links with network of individual stores Strength is internal Internet-based system = “RETAILINK” system consolidates orders for goods so Walmart can order full truckloads with minimal inventory costs makes transactions with suppliers highly efficient lowers cost of operations Supplier Performance Scorecard – Vendor Summary Page shows stocks at warehouse, store sales, store weeks on hand, markdowns, average lead time, replacement order fill rate

  24. RETAILINK Vendor Scorecard This is a breakdown of sales by state.

  25. DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY • 85% of merchandise sold by Walmart is shipped through distribution system to stores (competitors < 50%) DISTRIBUTION CENTERS • strategically situated to serve 150-200 Walmart stores within a day • operate 24 hours a day • use laser-guided conveyor belts & cross-docking techniques (receive goods on 1 side, simultaneously fill orders on other side) • Walmart trucks sometimes back-haul

  26. Planogram

  27. The Internet Internet is challenging traditional channels, offering wider range of possibilities for entering foreign markets • E-commerce • B2B (business-to-business) services • consumer services • consumer & industrial products • E-commerce more developed in U.S. than in rest of world, but this is changing • B2B enables companies to cut costs • reduces procurement costs • allows better supply-chain management • makes tighter inventory control possible

  28. E-commerce issues • Culture - site & product must be culturally neutral (manner of expression; use of color; etc) • Adaptation - language translation; country-specific sites • Local content - ease of returning goods; local language engagement • Payment - very culture-specific • Delivery - costs of delivery options • Promotion - how to attract overseas visitors to your site

  29. How much Internet Retail Sales? • 11.6% = US online share of retail market • 7.2% = ave. European online share of retail market • Growing fast • Japan

  30. Just in Time (JIT) INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Goals of lean production/JIT: inventoriesreturn on investment waste of timeproduction efficiency waste of materialproduct quality carrying costs Simple philosophy of JIT: INVENTORY = WASTE History: - Henry Ford 1922 - Piggly Wiggly - Toyota

  31. BMW Vision of lean development “Three Day Car”:3 days from customer order to delivery • built-to-order strategy to produce cars • exactly meet customer expectations Customer visits BMW showroom & selects features, or customer may compile customized car on personal computer. Once order is placed, Spartanburg, SC, plant makes car within 10 days • waste of time & material in production process • production efficiency & product quality

  32. Keys to success in Global Distribution Decisions Distribution is a distinct art and/or science. • variety of distribution channels • how they affect cost & efficiency in marketing • how distribution patterns affect international marketing • e-commerce as distribution enhancer or distribution alternative • middlemen

  33. Next class (#23):GUEST: Michael Raffler Kuehne & Nagel Homework: Kuehne & Nagel web site

  34. Next class(#24): Global Communications Decisions Homework #10: Unconventional Communications