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Biotechnology Unlocking the secrets of life. What is Biotechnology?. Definition: The use of living organisms to make or improve a product Bio (life) technology (the application of knowledge for practical use. Where did it begin?. Ancient bread baking Wine brewing Cheese making

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what is biotechnology
What is Biotechnology?
  • Definition:

The use of living organisms to make or improve a product

    • Bio (life)
    • technology (the application of knowledge for practical use
where did it begin
Where did it begin?
  • Ancient bread baking
  • Wine brewing
  • Cheese making
  • Yogurt fermentation
  • Animal and plant breeding
biotechnology today
Biotechnology Today
  • Focuses on how to change microorganisms, plants and animals
  • Scientist isolated and made changes to DNA in the early 1970’s
    • DNA carries the “Blueprint”
    • Genes are units of DNA
techniques

Gene Mapping

Tissue Culture

Biofermentation

Biotechnology

Cloning

Gene Transfer

Gene Mapping

Techniques
genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering
  • Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology
  • Removes gene(s) from one organism and either:
    • Transfers them to another
    • Puts them back in the original with a different combination
  • Transgenic
techniques1
Techniques
  • Genetic Mapping
    • Locating specific genes within heredity material
  • Tissue Culture
    • Modified cells can grow into whole plants
  • Biofermentation
    • Mass production of modified microorganisms
  • Cloning
    • Reproducing genetically identical animals
biotechnology in agriculture plants
Biotechnology in Agriculture(Plants)
  • Crops
    • Built in insect and herbicide resistance
    • Built in tolerance to environmental conditions
    • Improved color and quality
  • Pharmaceuticals
    • Plants that produce edible vaccines
  • Food
    • Improved taste and nutrition
    • Improved handling qualities
biotechnology in agriculture plants1
Biotechnology in Agriculture(Plants)
  • Industrial
    • plants that produce plastics, fuels, and other products
    • plants for environmental cleanup
  • Other
    • pesticides made from naturally-occurring microorganisms and insects
biotechnology in agriculture animals
Biotechnology in Agriculture(Animals)
  • Breeding
    • Disease tolerance
    • Exact copies of desired stock
    • Increased yields
  • Health
    • Microorganisms introduced into feed for beneficial purposes
    • Diagnostics for disease and pregnancy detection
    • Animals engineered to to produce organs suitable for transplantation into humans
biotechnology in agriculture animals1
Biotechnology in Agriculture(Animals)
  • Food
    • Increased milk production
    • leaner meat in pork
    • growth hormones in farm-raised fish that result in earlier market-ready fish
  • Pharmaceuticals
    • Animals engineered to produce human proteins for drugs, including insulin and vaccines
assignment
Assignment

Develop a timeline of events outlining advances in the field of biotechnology. You may use the World Wide Web in the Career Center to search for these events.

Your timeline should have at lease five events.

The search engine www.google.com is a good start.

history of biotechnology
History of Biotechnology
  • 1860’s-Botanist Gregor Mendel recognizes heredity information is stored in units (now called genes)
  • 1870’s-chromosomes are discovered
  • 1953-DNA Double Helix is discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick (England)
history of biotechnology1
History of Biotechnology
  • 1968-a process was developed for identifying chromosomes (Switzerland)
  • 1973-First successful combining of DNA from unrelated organisms (recombinant DNA) (USA)
  • 1978-First test tube baby (Louise Brown) was born in England
history of biotechnology2
History of Biotechnology
  • 1984-Sheep and goat embryo cells are fused together to create a sheep-goat
  • 1986-Light-producing gene of firefly is transferred to tobacco creating tobacco plants with glowing leaves
  • 1987-calf cloned from an embryo
history of biotechnology3
History of Biotechnology
  • 1991-sheep created that makes drug in milk to treat cystic fibrosis
  • 1994-first transgenic food approved (Flvr Savr) tomato
  • 1996-goat injected with a human gene produces an anticancer drug
  • 1997-Adult sheep cloned (“Dolly”)
industry
Industry
  • In 1998 there were 1,300 biotechnology companies in the Unites States
    • small start up companies
      • one product or service
    • large multinational corporations
      • combine research and production
industry1
Industry
  • In 1997 the overall biotechnology sales increases 20%
  • 13 billion dollar industry
  • Over 93 billion dollars invested
careers
Careers
  • In 1998 biotechnology included about 140,000 jobs
  • Jobs for high school graduates to PhD’s
  • Provides over 17,000 jobs in North Carolina
    • $850 million dollar payroll
career examples
Career Examples
  • Laboratory work
    • working on gene maps
    • growing plants from cells
    • working with animal embryos
  • Experimental Farms
  • Field jobs
  • Industry jobs
    • manufacturing
    • regulatory affairs (FDA, USDA)
    • sales
education
Education
  • High School Courses
    • Basic Biology
    • Agriculture
    • Biotechnology
  • Post-secondary
    • Biology
    • Microbiology
    • Genetics
    • Biochemistry
education1
Education
  • North Carolina has an online biotechnology center
    • Information on NC Biotechnology
    • Educational Opportunities
    • News
    • Hot Topics

www.ncbiotech.org/

assignment1
Assignment
  • Research two different careers related to biotechnology
  • Find information regarding:
    • Salary
    • Education
    • Job Description
    • Job Demand
  • Write a one paragraph summary for each career
  • Keep the summaries in your notes