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The smallest part of an element that retains the properties of that element How Small is an atom? PowerPoint Presentation
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The smallest part of an element that retains the properties of that element How Small is an atom? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Atom. The smallest part of an element that retains the properties of that element How Small is an atom? 20,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms of copper and zinc in a penny What is an atom made of? Protons: Positively charged particles in the nucleus

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Atom

  • The smallest part of an element that retains the properties of that element
  • How Small is an atom?

20,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms of copper and zinc in a penny

  • What is an atom made of?
    • Protons:
      • Positively charged particles in the nucleus
      • The atomic number is = to the number of protons
    • Neutron:
      • Particles of the nucleus that have no electrical charge
    • Electrons:
      • Negatively charged particles outside the nucleus
      • Orbiting around the nucleus in energy levels, shells, or clouds
      • Electrons have smallest amount of mass
    • Atomic Mass Unit:
      • Used to express the masses of particles (protons + neutrons) in atoms
slide2

IONS

    • Charges of protons and electrons are opposite but equal, so their charges cancel out.
    • Atoms have no overall charge
      • Unless the number of electrons and protons are unequal
    • Ion:
      • Charged particle formed when electrons and protons are not equal
        • More electrons / negatively charged ion
        • Less electrons/ positively charged ion
  • Remember: Electrons and Ions go together!
slide4

How Do Atoms of

Different Elements Differ?

  • All atoms contain protons and electrons
  • Most atoms contain neutrons, but not all ex. hydrogen
  • An atom does not have to have an = number of protons and neutrons
  • Atomic Number:
    • The # of protons in the nucleus
slide5
Isotope:

Have the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons

Atoms that are isotopes of each other are always the same element because isotopes always have the same number of protons

Have different # of neutrons which gives them different masses

Remember: Neutrons and Isotopes go together!!

Isotopes

slide6

Properties of Isotopes

  • Some isotopes are unstable
  • An unstable atom is an atom with a nucleus that will change over time – radioactive
  • Radioactive atoms spontaneously fall apart over time
  • Telling Isotopes Apart:
    • You can tell isotopes of an element apart by its mass number
      • protons + neutrons =mass number (figure 5 page 92)
    • + H ion H atom - H ion
    • Electrons are not included in the mass number because they are so small that they have little effect on the elements atomic mass.
    • Atomic Mass:
      • the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units
      • The weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.
slide7

Forces in an Atom

  • Each atom has forces that act between the particles
    • Gravitational force
    • Electromagnetic force
    • Strong force
    • Weak force
    • (page 94 figure 7)