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An Overview of Somali Language. Guud Mar Af Soomali:. Af iyo Somaali Fac weynida afka Abla-ablaynta afka Astaamaha Afka Suugaanta Oraaheed ee afka Qoraalka afka Waayaha afku hadda ku suganyahay Kaalinta dhallinyarada ee badbaadinta afka.

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An overview of somali language

AnOverview of Somali Language

Guud mar af soomali
Guud Mar Af Soomali:

  • Af iyo Somaali

  • Fac weynida afka

  • Abla-ablaynta afka

  • Astaamaha Afka

  • Suugaanta Oraaheed ee afka

  • Qoraalka afka

  • Waayaha afku hadda ku suganyahay

  • Kaalinta dhallinyarada ee badbaadinta afka

Classification and characteristics abla ablaynta iyo astaamaha
Classification and characteristics:-(Abla-ablaynta iyo astaamaha

  • Spoken in: Somalia and Eastern part of Ethiopia,Parts of Rep. of Jabouti and N.E kenya

  • Region: East Africa

  • Total speakers: 15-25 million

  • Ranking: not in top 100

  • Genetic Classification: Hamito-semitic (Afro-Asian) Cushitic Eastern Cushitic Somali


  • Closely related to Oromo, Afar and Saho languages

  • Distantly related to Arabic and other Semitic languages

  • Heavily influenced by Arabic because of historically and Islamic ties.

  • Official Status: official language of

    Somalia and Eastern Ethiopia Somali zone

  • Language Codes:

    ISO 639-1 SO

    ISO 639-2 Som

Historical background musduleedka taariikheed
Historical Background:(Musduleedka Taariikheed)

  • 2.Historically Somali is an ancient language:

  • As one of the hamito-semitic bridging between African and Asian language(Afro-Asiatic)

  • One of the surviving Hamitic languages to which semitic languages are related and were in use about 3000 B.C

  • Quotation from a book book:

Historical ….:

…..There must have been a hamito-semitic language which was the common ancestor of all Semitic and Hamitic languages. The language of ancient Egypt belonged to the Hamitic group….Surviving Hamitic groups are spoken across a large part of North Africa, and include Somali and the many dialects of Berber.

  • Referred in the book:

    Barber, Charles: Cambridge univ. press 1993

  • Somali was found to have relations with ancient Egyptian Heliographic scripts.


  • Somali is a gender language

  • Somali is an agglutinative language

  • Could be a four color language

  • Somali is phonetic language

Somali oral literature suugaanta oraaheed
Somali Oral Literature:(Suugaanta oraaheed)

  • Somali language remained to be unwritten oral language hence, accumulated a rich oral literature.

  • 3. Somali oral literature: Preserved all forms of literature, the culture, history and language itself

  • Oration and art of word is highly valued, hence the terms of Af-tahan, Af-maal, Af-garooc, Af-miishar….

  • Rich in proverbs, sayings, anecdotes, figurative, puzzles, folktales and animal fables in storytelling,

  • Various work chants, children’s verses, numerous poetry genres

Kaalinta sugaanta ee dhaqanka
Kaalinta Sugaanta ee Dhaqanka

  • Poetry plays central role in Somali life and thought

  • Many of day-to-day task which people have poetry associated with them in one form or another

  • Without the twin inspiration of their faith and verse, Somali’s would waste themselves in desperation

  • The poetic creativity and the lyric verse are survival mechanism

Somali poetry maansada soomaaliyeed
Somali Poetry:(Maansada Soomaaliyeed)

  • Is the medium whereby an individual or a group can present a case most persuasively.

  • Functions are versatile, concerned not only with matters of art and creativity but also with questions of social significance.

  • Is a public forum and a principal medium of mass communication and a repository of knowledge about the past.

  • It illuminates culture, society and history

  • Is a monopolistic craft, relatively small number of people is endowed with the talent to compose high quality verse- as artistic geniuses are hardly in abundance.

  • Contributed the most to the structure of other forms of modern Somali poetry and to the development of other cultural expressions like the theater.

The poets who practice classical poetry kaalinta maansayahanka
The poets who practice classical poetry (Kaalinta Maansayahanka)

  • Comment on public affairs of their immediate community, their nation and the whole world.

  • Compose verse on all-important events to express and formalize in verse the dominant issues of the age.

  • Influence the course of events by modeling public opinion and stirring their listeners to action.

  • Often act as spokesmen for clans, territorial groups, presenting their views in poetic form using praise, flattery, censure, derision or even downright verbal abuse as the occasion demands.

  • Incite people to war or counsel peace.

  • Compose to give the expression to inform, educate, persuade, and convince others and to express to their private inspirations.

  • Look after their own prestige very carefully but by custom are allowed to boast about themselves and about their properties.

  • Have a privileged status and occupy a prominent place in society.

Somalis are often described as nation of bards
Somalis are often described as “nation of bards”

  • In 1854, The English explorer Richard Burton traveled through Somali territory in the horn of Africa. He commented about Somali poetic traditions

  • The country teems with “poets, poetasters, poetitos, poetaccios”: every man has his recognized position in literature as accurately defined as though he had been reviewed in a century of magazines- the fine ear of this people causing them to take the greatest pleasure in harmonious sounds and poetical expressions, whereas a false quantity prosaic phrase excite their violent indignation.

Nature and genres
Nature and genres:

  • Somali poetry is alliterative; in each line there should be one or two, depending on the length of the line, words beginning with same consonant or with a vowel, all vowels alliterate with each other.

  • There are many poetic genres: Gabay, Geerar,Guurow and Jiifto are the classical verse.

  • Other genres may include: Wiglo, hirwo, Dhaanto and balwo described by John Johnson as Miniature genres. Buraanbur, Giish, hees dhallaan (lalebey) Saar, maanyo, chants of many of work songs, animal songs, Children’s and dance songs.

  • Each genre of poetry has its own particular metrical template.

  • Metre is vocalically quantitative defined in terms of the number and patterning of long and short vowels.

  • Scansion Patterns depend on the lengeth of the syllables, with short syllables treated as having one time unit and long ones as having two.

  • Length of syllables is determined by the length of its vowel or diphthong.

  • The gabay and guurow lines are 18-20 vowel units long.

  • Anigoo dukaan lay dhigoo, dhab u cashaynaaya

  • 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1= 18

  • Baan soo dhaqaaqoo ma helin, dhuunigaan rabeye

  • 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1

Qoraalka afka
Qoraalka Afka

  • Heerar Taariihkeed ayaa qoraalka Afku so maray.

  • Summadda xarfaha Laatiinku waxay rasmi ahaan hirgashay Oktoobar 21,1972.

  • Waxa lagu hirgeliyey tallaabooyin kala danbayey:

    -Taaxanihii hawlihii guddigii Af Soomaaliga

    -Ololihii magaalooyinka+imtixaankii shaqaalaha

    -O.H.R.M + Billadii ahkris-qorista/literacy ee caalamiga ahayd

    -Ololihii buug qoraalka ee manaahijta

    - Hawla horumarinta Afka ilaa 1977+gaar ahaan 3 Hayadood

Waayaha af soomaaliga ee hadda
Waayaha Af Soomaaliga ee Hadda

  • Burburkii Dalka iyo hawlaha Afka oo qabya ahaa.