English SOL Institute • Secondary Research Strand Introduction to the Literary Research Paper Rosa M. Reyes
Secondary Research • Key Points in Research • Critically evaluate the accuracy, quality, and validity of the information • Frame, analyze, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge
Secondary Research • Key Points in Research • Citation of primary and secondary sources begins in grade 6 • Consequences of plagiarism, following ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information stressed grades 3-12
Secondary Research • Key Points in Research • Each research “product” does not have to be a paper • Incorporate Media Literacy into research • Research is now tested on the Writing SOL test
Writing a Literary Research Paper Rosa M. Reyes, M.A. Washington-Lee HS Arlington, Virginia
Literary Research Writing • To begin: You need a topic! • To select a topic: You can … • Focus on an Author (Ex: Khalid Hosseini) • Focus on a Work(Ex: Hosseini’s Kite Runner or ATSS or compare/contrast the works of a given author) • Focus on a Biography(Ex: Hosseini’s life as a “mirror” image of his central character, Amir; or Shakespeare’s personal tragedy, the loss of his twin son, led to his writing Twelfth Night… for Hosseini, this does not yet apply—you can check to see if there are autobiographies) • Focus on the Historical(Ex: The influence of the Taliban…) • Focus on the Cultural(Ex: Afghan Marital Customs) • Focus on the Psychological(Ex: The influence of guilt on how a person deals with decision making…) • Focus on a Literary (technique) (Ex: Hosseini’s use of imagery, point of view, flashback or foreshadowing, etc…) • Focus on a Media (messages) (Ex: In the film industry, Afghan culture is often misrepresented using propaganda techniques such as…)
Literary Research Writing • Once you have a topic selected, you need to FOCUS your SUPPLEMENTALRESEARCH: Ask yourself… • Is enough information available on the topic? (You should be able to find/use at least 3-5 good sources; i.e. books, articles, non print sources—ABOVE THE PRIMARY SOURCE—THE NOVEL) • Is the topic OBJECTIVE? • Is the topic unique and interesting or does it simply restate other people’s ideas? • Does the topic need additional research to support? • How can I analyze the events of the plot within the context of my supplemental research to prove or disprove the author’s intent?
Literary Research Writing • BOOLEAN RESEARCH ENGINE ACTIVITY
Literary Research Writing • To help FOCUS the TOPIC, consider: • Purpose: Your reason for writing this paper around an original synthesis of researched information that supports an ORIGINAL concept or interpretation you derived in your reading • Audience: Your readers are your peers and me • Tone: Using formal tone; 3rd person objective*; appropriate grammar and syntax
Literary Research Writing • F.O.C.U.S. ACTIVITY
Example: 1st POV vs 3rd POV 1st POV: I feel Hosseini’s use of the kite is a symbol for the struggle Afghans faced during the political uprisings that changed their way of life and customs by restricting their personal freedoms. A kite, like the basic fundamental right to freedom and the pursuit of happiness, is taken from them which I think is the root cause of all the conflicts we see in Afghanistan today… 3rd POV: Hosseini’s use of the kite is a symbol for the struggle the people of Afghanistan faced during the political uprisings that changed their way of life and customs by restricting their personal freedoms. A kite, like the basic fundamental right to freedom and the pursuit of happiness, is taken from them which triggers the root cause of all the conflicts seen in Afghanistan today….
Literary Research Writing • “SO, WHAT?” ACTIVITY [ONLINE GAME]
Literary Research Writing • The paper expectations: This will be a Writing/Project Grade • A-B range: 5+ pages, typed, double-spaced, with a Bibliography page or Work Cited (page is not part of TOTAL range) • C-D range: 1-3+ pages, typed, double-spaced, with a Bibliography page or Work Cited (page is not part of TOTAL range) • TIMELINE TO COMPLETE: • Think about a topic (try to identify at least 1 or 2 if you are indecisive) and at least 3 sources you think you will use for your research—EMAIL TO ME BY __[date]____ • DEVELOP AN OUTLINE FOR YOUR WRITING —EMAIL TO ME BY __[date]____ • FIRST/Second DRAFT [REQUIRED] FOR REVIEW —EMAIL OR SEND VIA GOOGLE DOCS BY __[date]____ • FINAL PAPER DUE [NO EXCEPTIONS] —EMAIL OR UPLOAD TO GOOGLE BY __[date]____
Literary Research Writing • THE NEXT SLIDES PROVIDE SOME DETAILS ON HOW TO WRITE THIS PAPER • I HAVE PRIMARILY REFERENCED and PARAPHRASED FROM THE HOLT ANTHOLOGY FOR LANGUAGE USED IN GRADE 12
Literary Research Writing • Writing a Thesis Statement: (Holt, pg. 255) • What is it? • A thesis statement is a sentence or two identifying the main idea you intend to explain or prove in your paper. It is an act of synthesis, reviewing and pulling together all your information to state what your paper will say about your topic (main idea). Also referred to as a “map.” • What should my thesis statement have? • Specific wording that describes what you will address in your paper • Assertive ideas stated (3rd person objective) • Arguable concepts that can have different opinions (strive for a concept most people don’t see) • Unique assertions (original thoughts) about the subject
Literary Research Writing • SAMPLE THESIS STATEMENTS • ANALYTICAL • Breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. • EXPOSITORY • explains something to the audience • PERSUASIVE • makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided. • STUDENT EXAMPLES [SHARE]
Your Examples • Student 1: man’s status in society • Student 2: the impact of the soviet occupation of Afghanistan • Student 3: comparing the Soviet and Taliban rule on women • Student 4: comparison of Mariam’s life and Laila's life in a psychological way (ex: nurture vs nature)
Literary Research Writing • Making an outline for your research paper: • Select a pattern you will use • Chronological • Order of Importance • Logical Order • Formal vs. Informal • Informal: allows you to organize ideas without arranging them into outline form with numbers and letters • Clustering and Mapping
Literary Research Writing • Formal outlines: serve as a table of contents for the finished paper. This outline must follow standard outline format. (Holt, pg. 256-257) • You should also include a title to your paper: the title should describe the contents of your paper clearly and concisely.
Literary Research Writing MLA [Modern Language Association] • MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. • Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. • See link on my web site for available • Online MLA Guides
Literary Research Writing • Evaluating Sources (Holt, pg250-252) • Applying the “4R” test: • Relevant? Must contain information directlyrelated to your topic • Recent? Use sources as currentas possible • Reliable? Sources must be accurate (University sources .edu or .gov are considered reliable) • Representative? If topic is controversial, find sources that support both sides (opinions)—even if you draw your own conclusions
Literary Research Writing • Using your sources: • Keep NOTES on what you actually used or referred to for ideas • Work Cited vs. Bibliography • Work Cited: must included EVERY SOURCE you USED or VIEWED (even if you didn’t quote from it) • Bibliographies: include ONLY SOURCE/S USED
Literary Research Writing • Documenting sources (while researching): • Make a source card: a 3x5 card with bibliographic information on the source. Also include any page reference actually quoted and/or paraphrased in your writing; some cards even note the actual quote used. Could also make virtual cards. • Number your sources: this helps with the “pattern” you use for your outline • Record all publishing information: (title, subtitle, editor or translator, volume number, city, publisher, original publication date, revised edition date—see (Holt, page 272) • Note the call number or location of the sources AND DATE OF DOWNLOAD [for Online resources]—this helps if you need to go back to it
Literary Research Writing • While Researching: There are three ways to record information. (Holt, pg.252) • Summarizing • Paraphrasing • Quoting directly • Drawing Conclusions: (Holt, pg.254) • Examine all the information in the text • Relate information in the text to prior knowledge • State your conclusions in precise language
Literary Research Writing • Pg258: The Research Paper Model Guide • Introduction, 1-2 paragraphs • Hook your readers • Provide necessary background • Include your thesis statement • Body, 3-20 paragraphs (average) • Develop the first idea that supports your thesis • Develop the second idea…and so on.. • Conclusion, 1-3 paragraphs (average) • Restate your thesis (do not repeat it verbatim) • End with some final insights into your research • Create your Works Cited List (attach separately)
Literary Research Writing • Resources Referenced • TEXT • HOLT, RINEHART, and WINSTON. Elements of Language. 6th ed. Austin: Holt, 2007. Print. • ONLINE • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Contact Information • RosaM.Reyes • email@example.com
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