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Introduction to DC circuits . A brief overview on the basics. jbugni@nmu.edu. The Atom. Basic unit of matter Made up of tiny particles, two are important in electricity Protons Contained in the nucleus (center) of the atom Have a positive charge Electrons

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introduction to dc circuits

Introduction to DC circuits

A brief overview on the basics

jbugni@nmu.edu

the atom
The Atom
  • Basic unit of matter
  • Made up of tiny particles, two are important in electricity
    • Protons
      • Contained in the nucleus (center) of the atom
      • Have a positive charge
    • Electrons
      • Move around the nucleus in paths called shells
      • Have a negative charge
      • Electrons in the outer most shell are called valence electrons
the atom cont
The Atom cont.
  • Amount of negative charge of each electron is equal to the amount of positive charge of each proton
  • If enough energy is applied to an atom, some valence electrons will leave the atom
  • Ions
    • Charge atom
    • Negative ion has more electrons than protons
    • Positive ion has more protons than electrons
    • Ions with similar charges repel, different charges attract
  • Current flows when electrons move from one atom to another
the atom cont1
The Atom cont.

http://nasash.com/physics_thesaurus/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/a4atom.jpg

what is a circuit
What is a circuit?
  • Defined as a system of conductors and devices through which electrons can move.
  • Consists of three characteristics
    • Must contain a power source
    • Complete path for current flow from one side of the power source to the other
    • Contains some type of resistance to limit the amount of current.
example of basic circuit
Example of basic circuit

Switch

Light bulb

Conductor

Battery

http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Circuit_Construction_Kit_DC_Only

voltage
Voltage
  • Measured in volts
  • Electrical pressure used to move electrons throughout the circuit
  • Also defined as the potential difference between two unlike charges
  • Think of voltage as the water pressure in a garden hose
current
Current
  • Measured in amps or ampere
  • Movement of electrons through the circuit
  • Think of the water flow in the garden hose
  • DC refers to direct current or movement of electrons in one direction
resistance
Resistance
  • Measured in ohms
  • Opposes the movement of current
  • Reduces the amount of current in a circuit
  • Think of kinking the garden hose
  • May also be referred to the load of the circuit
conductors
Conductors
  • A solid, liquid or gas which electrons can easily pass through
  • Most commonly made from copper
schematic diagrams
Schematic Diagrams
  • Standard way of communicating information in electricity and electronics
  • Components are shown by graphic symbols
  • May not accurately represent the actual location of components
electrical symbols
Electrical Symbols

http://alldatapro.com/alldata/PRO~V156153136~C21290~R0~OD~N/0/41746505/42420070/42420075/42420077/34853741/34869956/34849309/144051240

example of schematic
Example of Schematic

http://alldatapro.com/alldata/PRO~V156153136~C21290~R0~OD~N/0/41746505/42420070/42420075/42420077/34853741/34869956/34869958/56473437

ohm s law
Ohm’s law
  • Discovered by German physicist Georg Simon Ohm
  • Shows the relationship of resistance (R), current (I) and voltage (E) along with power (W)
  • The most common equation is E=IR, where voltage is equal to resistance times current
  • Basis for all study of electrical properties

ohm s law1
Ohm’s law

http://www.uakron.edu/groups/chemcar/docs/ohm.pdf

slide16
E=IR
  • For example: If a circuit has a constant power source of 12 volts and 4 amps of current, the resistance of the circuit must be 3 ohms (Ω)
  • 12=4×R therefore R=12÷4=3

http://alldatapro.com/alldata/PRO~V155748232~C35580~R0~OD~N/0/80851247/83211660/83214935/83214937/34853741/34869214/34869215/34869322/34869325/146660096

series circuit
Series Circuit
  • Only one path for current to flow
  • Total resistance of circuit is the sum of all resistances
  • Current is consistent throughout the circuit
  • Total voltage is spread across the loads in the circuit
    • Voltage drop is amount of voltage required to force the current through the load or resistance
    • Sum of all the voltage drops equals the total voltage applied to the circuit
series circuit schematic
Series Circuit Schematic

http://www.cybermike.net/reference/liec_book/DC/00090.jpg

parallel circuit
Parallel Circuit
  • Contain multiple connections or branches
  • Loads operate independently
  • Total current is divided between the branches
    • Determined by the resistance of the branch
    • Calculated by Ohm’s law
  • Voltage is the same on all the branches
  • Total resistance decreases as more branches are added
    • Always less than the branch with lowest resistance
parallel circuit cont
Parallel Circuit cont.
  • Resistance formulas
    • Two resistances of unequal value
      • RT=(R1 × R2)÷(R1 + R2)
    • All resistances are equal in value
      • RT = (value of one resistance) ÷ (number of resistances)
    • If resistances are not all equal in value
      • RT = 1 ÷ (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + … + 1/RN)
parallel circuit schematic
Parallel Circuit Schematic

http://www.faqs.org/docs/electric/DC/00083.png

series parallel circuit
Series-Parallel Circuit
  • Combination of both series and parallel circuits
  • Requires formulas from both series and parallel circuits to calculate resistance, current and voltage drops
  • Most electrical devices have series-parallel circuits
series parallel schematic
Series-Parallel Schematic

http://www.faqs.org/docs/electric/DC/00123.png

other sources
Other sources
  • Buban, P., Schmitt, M. L., & Carter Jr., C. G. (1992). Understanding Electricity and Electronics Technology. Peoria: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.
  • Grob, B. (1992). Grob Basic Electronics. Westerville: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.