III - Vocabulary List 2 • Abdicate – v - to renounce or relinquish a throne, right, power, claim, responsibility, or the like, especially in a formal manner • Bigot – n - a person who is obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices • Candid – adj - free from reservation, disguise, or subterfuge; straightforward • Desolate – adj - deprived or destitute of inhabitants; deserted; uninhabited • Ebullient – adj - overflowing with fervor, enthusiasm, or excitement; high-spirited • Flaccid - adj - soft and limp; not firm; flabby • Gibe – v - To make taunting, heckling, or jeering remarks; to jibe • Harangue – v - a scolding with a long or intense verbal attack; diatribe • Incongruous – adj - Lacking in harmony; incompatible:Not in agreement • Jaded – adj - made dull, apathetic, or cynical by experience; worn out, wearied
- A sentence tells a complete idea.- A fragment (non-sentence) tells an incomplete idea. • Read each of the following statements and decide which is a complete sentence.
Sharks are fierce hunters. • Sentence • Fragment
Afraid of sharks. • Sentence • Fragment
The great white shark will attack people. • Sentence • Fragment
Other kinds will not. • Sentence • Fragment
Sharks have an outer row of teeth for grabbing. • Sentence • Fragment
When the outer teeth fall out, another row of teeth moves up. • Sentence • Fragment
Help keep the ocean clean by eating dead animals. • Sentence • Fragment That’s good to know!
Not a single bone in his body. • Sentence • Fragment
Cartilage of sharks. • Sentence • Fragment
Made of the same material as the tip of your nose. • Sentence • Fragment
Unlike other fish, sharks cannot float. • Sentence • Fragment
In motion constantly. • Sentence • Fragment
Even when sleeping. • Sentence • Fragment
Clause • Group of words containing a subject and a verb • Independent • Dependent
Independent Clause“main clause” • A group of words made up of a subject and predicate • Simple sentence • Can stand alone as a sentence • Ex. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his English quiz.
Dependent Clause“subordinate clause” • Contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought • Cannot stand alone as a sentence • Must be attached to an independent clause • Ex: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his English quiz
Grammar Practice • Write 2 SENTENCES. • Reminder: These are COMPLETE thoughts • independent (main) clauses • Write 2 dependent clauses. • contains a subject & verb • You have 5 minutes
The Vicious Run-on Sentence …and how to tame it.
Run-on Sentence • Has at least 2 parts • Either part can stand alone • 2 independent clauses improperly combined • The sun is high, put on some sunscreen.
How to Combine a Run-on • Comma + coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) • The sun is high, so put on sunscreen. • F • A • N • B • O • Y • S
FANBOYS Practice • Correctly combine 2+ independent clauses using 3 different FANBOYS. • You have 8 minutes
Ok, so what does a semi-colon do? • Links 2 independent clauses (2 complete thoughts) with no additional words
Examples • I am going home; I intend to stay there. • It rained heavily during the afternoon; we managed to have our picnic anyway. • They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; they decided to camp for the night.
What else can it do? • join 2 independent clauses together with a conjunctive adverb (adverbs that join independent clauses): • however • moreover • therefore • consequently • otherwise • nevertheless • thus
More Examples • I am going home; moreover, I intend to stay there. • It rained heavily during the afternoon; however, we managed to have our picnic anyway. • They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; therefore, they decided to camp for the night.
Correct or Incorrect? • I felt sleepy after school; I took a nap on the couch. • The prom is next month; but I don’t have a date yet. • I love pizza; wings; chocolate; and burgers. • Washington Irving is a Romantic author; however, Nathaniel Hawthorne is a Dark Romantic. • I failed English; consequently, my parents grounded me.
Semi-Colon Practice • Write 3 sentences correctly combining 2+ independent clauses with a semi-colon and NO additional words. • Write 3 sentences correctly combining 2+ independent clauses using a conjunctive adverb. You have 11 minutes
Semi-colon Formulas • main clause + ; + conjunctive adverb + , + main clause. • I love dogs; however, I like cats too. • main clause+ ;+ main clause. • I love my cat; his name is Jack.
Common Conjunctive Adverbs • accordinglyalsobesidesconsequentlyconverselyfinallyfurthermorehence howeverindeedinsteadlikewise • meanwhilemoreoverneverthelessnext nonethelessotherwisesimilarlystillsubsequentlythenthereforethus
NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITHCoordinating Conjunctions • Main clause+ , + FANBOYS + main clause. • I love my dog, and I love my cat. • For • And • Nor • But • Or • Yet • So
Corrections Correct each of the following sentences 3x. • Using JUST a semi-colon • Using the semi-colon, conjunctive adverb, comma construction • Using a comma and FANBOYS • I am sleepy I want to take a nap. • My dog ran away I cried myself to sleep. • This weekend is Halloween my costume is awesome.
The Fab Four Types of Sentences
Types of Sentences • Simple • Complex • Compound • Compound-complex
Simple • Has 1 independent (stand alone) clause • Ex. David Letterman and Jay Leno host talk shows.
Compound • Consists of 2+ independent clauses. • The independent clauses can be joined with • , + A coordinating conjunction: • for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS) • A semicolon (;) • Ex. Amir is a coward, but Hassan is brave.
Complex • Contains 1 independent clause and 1+ dependent clause • Ideas are linked by subordinating conjunctions • after,how, until,although,if, unless,as, in order, that,whenas long as, whenever,as much as, now, where,as soon as,wherever,though, since,while,before, even, though, because • Ex. Although I love the mountains, I prefer the beach.
Compound-Complex • Has 2+ independent clauses and 1+ dependent clausesEx. When the heat comes, the lakes dry up, and farmers know the crops will fail. I planned to drive to work, but I couldn't until the mechanic repaired my car.
Grammar Practice • Write 8 sentences: • 2 simple • 2 compound • 2 complex • 2 compound-complex You have 12 minutes
Sentence Types Structure
Four sentence types • Declarative: makes a statement, ends with a period. • English is fascinating. • Imperative: makes a command, ends with a period. • Go study for your vocabulary quiz. • Exclamatory: expresses a strong feeling and is followed with an exclamation point! • I’m failing English! • Interrogative: asks a question and ends with a question mark? • Will you help me with my English homework?
Sentence Type Practice • Write a declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentence about The Kite Runner. • Bonus: use vocabulary words in the sentences!
Sentence Type Review • Will Amir ever redeem himself? • Hassan is a loyal boy. • Leave us alone, agha. • We won!
Sentence Types Length
Sentence Length Variety Telegraphic: 5 or fewer words Short: approximately 10 words Medium: approximately 18 words Long and Involved: 30 words or more
Count Poe’s Sentences I was never kinder to the old man than during the whole week before I killed him. And every night, about midnight, I turned the latch of his door and opened it--oh, so gently! And then, when I had made an opening sufficient for my head, I put in a dark lantern, all closed, closed, so that no light shone out, and then I thrust in my head. Oh, you would have laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in! I moved it slowly--very, very slowly, so that I might not disturb the old man's sleep. It took me an hour to place my whole head within the opening so far that I could see him as he lay upon his bed. Ha!--would a madman have been so wise as this? From: “The Tell-Tale Heart”