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Medical Imaging. By Anuja Kulkarni 1000722132. Introduction. Medical imaging as the name suggests is the technique and process used to create images of parts and functions of human body for clinical purposes. It is a medical procedure seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease. [1]

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Medical Imaging

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medical imaging

Medical Imaging




  • Medical imaging as the name suggests is the technique and process used to create images of parts and functions of human body for clinical purposes.
  • It is a medical procedure seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease. [1]

There are two types of medical imaging, they are-

  • Invisible light medical imaging- radiology /clinical imaging
  • Visible light medical imaging- involves digital video or still pictures that can be seen without special equipment.
imaging technologies
Imaging Technologies
  • Radiology: [2]

Two forms of radiographic images are in use in medical imaging; projection radiography and fluoroscopy.

Figure 1: Digital Radiography

magnetic resonance imaging and fiduciary markers
Magnetic Resonance imaging and fiduciary markers
  • A magnetic resonance imaging instrument, uses powerful magnets to polarise and excite hydrogen nuclei in water molecules in human tissue, producing a detectable signal which is spatially encoded, resulting in images of the body. [3]
  • Fiduciary Markers

Fiduciary markers are used in a wide range of medical imaging applications. Images of the same subject produced with two different imaging systems may be correlated by placing a fiduciary marker in the area imaged by both systems. [4]

Figure 2: fMRI scan

Figure 3: Fiducial Marker Example

photo acoustic imaging and tomography
Photo-acoustic imaging and tomography
  • Photo acoustic imaging is a recently developed hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photo acoustic effect. [5]
  • Tomography is the method of imaging a single plane, or slice, of an object resulting in a tomogram. [5]
  • Figure 4: Computed tomography of brain
creation of three dimensional images
Creation of three-dimensional images
  • Recently, techniques have been developed to enable CT, MRI and ultrasound scanning software to produce 3D images for the physician. [6]
  • To produce 3D images, many scans are made, then combined by computers to produce a 3D model, which can then be manipulated by the physician.
  • Other proposed or developed techniques include:
  • Diffuse optical tomography
  • Elastography
  • Electrical impedance tomography
  • Optoacoustic imaging
  • Ophthalmology
compression of medical images
Compression of medical images
  • JPEG 2000 is the state-of-the-art image compression DICOM standard for storage and transmission of medical images. [7]

Figure 5: Comparison of JPEG2000 with JPEG

compression of medical images1
Compression of medical images
  • JPIP (JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol) is a compression streamlining protocol that works with JPEG 2000 to produce an image using the least bandwidth required. [8]
  • JPIP has the capacity to download only the requested part of a picture, saving bandwidth, computer processing on both ends, and time. [9]
non diagnostic imaging neuroimaging
Non-diagnostic imaging (Neuroimaging)
  • Neuroimaging has also been used in experimental circumstances to allow people to control outside devices, acting as a brain computer interface. [10]
  • Neuroimaging falls into two broad categories:
  • Structural imaging
  • Functional imaging which is used to diagnose

Figure 7: 3D MRI section of the head[11]

proposed work
Proposed work
  • This project introduces the concept of medical imaging and divulges into its technologies like MRI, tomography, ultrasound etc. I will also compare the compression techniques of medical imaging i.e. JPEG2000 and JPIP.
  • It proposes to demonstrate creation of 3D images of CT/MRI scan from a normal 2D one. It also shows some circumstances of neuroimagingi.e non-diagnostic medical imaging as in Figure 6.
  • Squire LF, Novelline RA (1997). Squire's fundamentals of radiology (5th ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-83339-2  ;
  • M. Xu and L.H. Wang ; "Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine". Review of Scientific Instruments77 (4): 041101. doi:10.1063/1.2195024; 2006
  •  Herman, G. T., Fundamentals of computerized tomography: Image reconstruction from projection, 2nd edition, Springer, 2009
  • Richard S. C. Cobbold, Foundations of Biomedical Ultrasound, pp. 422–423. 978-0-19-516831-0
  • AYamani A, King Fahd Univ of Pet & Mine- A novel pulse-echo technique for medical three dimensional imaging- r, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Dec 1997
  • Khademi A; Krishnan S, Dept of Elect and Comp Eng, Ryerson Univ, Toronto, Ont ;; Comparison of JPEG 2000 and other lossless compression schemes; Paper in Engineering in medicine and biology society,;2005
  • (figure 5)
  • (Figure 6)
  • Microsoft and NASA Bring Mars Down to Earth Through the WorldWide Telescope (07.12.10) - NASA
  • Filler, AG: The history, development, and impact of computed imaging in neurological diagnosis and neurosurgery: CT, MRI, DTI: Nature Precedings DOI: 10.1038/npre.2009.3267.5.Neurosurgical Focus (in press)
  • (Figure 7)/ Picture reference: sbharris on wikipedia