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Geocentric Theory . Aristotle believed that the Earth was the center of the universe because it was the heaviest of the four terrestrial elements (earth, water, air, fire). The lighter the element, the further it was away from the earth. That is why the sun isn’t the closest thing to the sun.

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geocentric theory
Geocentric Theory
  • Aristotle believed that the Earth was the center of the universe because it was the heaviest of the four terrestrial elements (earth, water, air, fire). The lighter the element, the further it was away from the earth. That is why the sun isn’t the closest thing to the sun.
  • Ptolemy expanded on this theory by saying that the sun and other planets had their own spheres and moved around that sphere while rotating around the earth.
heliocentric theory
Heliocentric Theory

almost 2000 years later Nicolaus Copernicus became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements for 25 years, Copernicus reached the conclusion that the stars, earth and the other planets revolved around the sun, otherwise known as the Heliocentric Theory.

He also knew that most scholars and clergy would reject his theory because it contradicted their religious views, so he didn’t publish his findings until the last year of his life (1543)

tycho brahe
Tycho Brahe
  • Over the next century and a half other scientists built on the foundations Copernicus had laid.
  • Tycho Brahe carefully recorded the movements of the planets for many years. He produced mountains of accurate data based on his observations .
johannes kepler
Johannes Kepler
  • Johannes Kepler was Tycho Brahe’s assistant. After studying Brahe’s data he concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. One of these laws showed that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles.
galileo galilei
Galileo Galilei
  • Galileo built his own telescope to study space in 1609.
  • In 1610 he published a small book called Starry Messenger, which described his astronomical findings. In his book he announced that Jupiter had 4 moons, the sun had dark spots, and the earth’s moon had a rough and uneven surface.
  • This shattered Aristotle’s theory that the moon and stars were made of a pure, perfect substance.
galileo continued
Galileo continued…
  • Galileo ‘s findings frightened both the Catholic and Protestant leaders because they went against church teaching and authority.
  • He stood before the court in 1633, and under the threat of torture, he knelt before the court and read a signed confession . In it he agreed that the ideas of Copernicus were false.
  • (In 1992 the Catholic Church officially acknowledged that Galileo had been right.)
francis bacon
Francis Bacon
  • The scientific method did not develop overnight. Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes helped advance this new approach to thinking.
  • He believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve people’s lives.
  • Instead of reasoning with abstract theories, he urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions.
  • He called his approached empiricism or the experimental method.
rene descartes
Rene Descartes
  • Like Bacon, he believed that scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings.
  • As a mathematician, however he approached gaining knowledge differently than Bacon. Rather than using experimentation, he relied on math and logic. He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason.
isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • Isaac Newton helped bring together everyone’s breakthroughs under a single theory of motion. Newton’s great discovery was that the same force ruled motion of the heavens with motion on earth and in space. The key idea was the law of universal gravitation.
zacharias janssen and anton van leeuwenhook
Zacharias Janssen and Anton van Leeuwenhook

The first microscope was invented by a Dutch maker of eyeglasses Zacharias Janssen in 1590

In the 1670s a Dutch drapery merchant and amateur scientist named Anton van Leeuwenhook used a microscope to observe bacteria swimming in tooth scrapings.

evangalista torricelli
Evangalista Torricelli
  • In 1643, one of Galileo’s students, Evangalista Torricelli developed the first mercury barometer, a tool for measuring atmospheric pressure and predicting the weather.
gabriel fahrenheit
Gabriel Fahrenheit
  • In 1714, the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit made the first thermometer to use mercury in glass. His thermometer showed water freezing at 32 degrees.
anders celcius
Anders Celcius
  • A Swedish astronomer, Anders Celcius, created another scale for the mercury thermometer in 1742. Celcius’s scale showed water freezing at 0 degrees.
andreas vesalius
Andreas Vesalius
  • A Flemish physician named Andreas Vesalius proved Galen’s assumptions wrong. Vesalius dissected human corpses and published his observations. His book On the Structure of the Human Body (1543) was filled with detailed drawings of human organs, bones, and muscle.
edward jenner
Edward Jenner
  • In the late 1700s, British physician Edward Jenner introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox. Jenner discovered that inoculation with germs from a cattle disease called cowpox gave permanent protection from smallpox in humans.
robert boyle
Robert Boyle
  • Robert Boyle pioneered the use of the scientific method in chemistry. He is considered the founder of modern chemistry. In his book The ScepticalChymist (1661) he proposed that matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways.
  • His most famous contribution to chemistry is Boyle’s Law this law explains how the volume temperature and pressure of gas affect each other.
  • On Friday we talked about what the word revolution means. Our definition was that it basically meant a time of change.
  • Because of the Scientific Revolution, people started to change the way they thought, and one subject that people started to focus on was how the government was being run.
  • Today we will be focusing on how two men helped revolutionized the way the world is run today.
my reading strategies
My Reading Strategies
  • Change your speed
  • Re-read
  • Take a break
  • Use clues to help understand a vocabulary word (underline or circle if you still can’t figure it out)
  • Skim first
  • Have a reason to read
  • Use your background knowledge and make personal connections
  • Try to picture what the author is saying (visualize)
  • Ask questions (talk to the text
  • Try to summarize the paragraph you just read