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Overview of Plants Chapter 28 & Introduction to Animals Chapter 32. As part of our exploration of the 6 Kingdoms, we have already looked at 4: Archaea, Bacteria, Protists & Fungi We will finish this unit with Plants & Animals. Primary source: Holt Biology, other sources as noted in text.
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Overview of PlantsChapter 28&Introduction to AnimalsChapter 32 As part of our exploration of the 6 Kingdoms, we have already looked at 4: Archaea, Bacteria, Protists & Fungi We will finish this unit with Plants & Animals Primary source: Holt Biology, other sources as noted in text
Part I -Plants: Objectives • Namethree adaptations plants have made to life on land. • Know that Botanists sometime refer to plant phyla as “divisions” • Summarizethe classification of plants. • List 12 plant phyla ( or divisions) • Explain the differences between: • Vascular & nonvascular plants • Spores & seeds, • gymnosperms & angiosperms • Describealternation of generations.
Part I Plants Plants dominate the land & many bodies of water • Plant life existed in the oceans over 3 billion years ago. • No life existed on the land because of UV radiation since there was no ozone layer. • Approximately 475 million years ago, enough oxygen had been produced so that an ozone layer formed in the atmosphere. • Small club shaped plants were the first to live on the edges of land near water.
Part I Plants Advantages of life on land • Increased sunlight for photosynthesis • Increased CO2 levels • Access to inorganic molecules in soil • Susceptible to drying out Disadvantages of life on land
Part I Plants 3 adaptationsallow plants to live on land: 1. Able to prevent water loss • a waxy cuticleto prevent water loss 2. Able to reproduce without water • haploid sporesand diploid seeds to protect reproductive cells 3. Able to absorb/transport nutrients • vascular tissues called xylem&phloem absorbing & transporting materials within the plant.
Part I Plants Preventing water loss • Cuticle- a protective waxy coating on plant surfaces prevents drying out.
Part I Plants Preventing water loss • Stomata – small openings in the surface of plant that allow gas exchange (oxygen out, carbon dioxide in) • means "mouths" in Greek The "lips" are actually individual cells (called guard cells) that can further to close off the stomata, to prevent loss of water for the plant. Two stomata on a duckweed leaf. evolution.berkeley.edu/.../0_0_0/mcelwain_02
Part I Plants *Reproducing by seeds & spores Developed structures to keep gametes moist: • Spore- a reproductive cell (a gamete) that is surrounded by a hard outer wall. Needs at least a small amount of water to survive. • Seed – an embryo surrounded by a protective coat. Can reproduce in a dry environment. Some seeds contain an • Endosperm- a tissue in some seeds that provides nourishment.
Part I Plants Spores • Ferns are non-flowering plants with large leaves that reproduce by spore formation. • To date there are 10,400 known species of true ferns. • A problem with spores is that they require a moist environment (water) to be fertilized. www.nybg.org/bsci/herb/ferns.html
Part I Plants Reproduction without water • Spores require water for fertilization. • The amount of water needed is not large - the film remaining after a rainfall will do it, but such a film will also dry rapidly in a dry atmosphere. • Seed development is considered an evolutionary improvement… • Plants with seeds • have a greater reproductive success • embryo is protected & nourished inside the hard coat. • Seeds can remain inactive when conditions are unacceptable for growth (hot, cold, drought)
Part I Plants Seeds A bean is the seed of a bean plant. When the seed germinates, or starts to grow, small parts inside the seed grow into the root and stem. Most of the seed is used for food by the young plant. When the plant grows green leaves it begins to make its own food by photosynthesis.
More about seeds • A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. • It is the product of the ripened ovule of which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant. • 2 kinds of plants make seeds: • gymnosperms (meaning “naked seed”- are cone bearing plants like pine, fir, ginko) • angiosperms (flowering plants) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed
Absorbing & Transporting Materials • Aquatic plants- take nutrients form water • Terrestrial plants- nutrients from soil with root system.
Vascular Plants • Some Plants have specialized tissues to transport water & dissolved substances like sugar to parts of the plant. • Xylem- tube like tissue that carries water& minerals from roots to stems & leaves • Phloem- carries organic compounds like carbohydrates (sugars) from leaves to other plant parts. • Vascular tissue also helps support plants.
12 Phyla (or “Divisions”) of Plants Divided into two groups based on the presence of vascular tissue. • 3 phyla of nonvascular plants • do nothave true vascular tissue • no roots, stems, or leaves. • 9 phyla of vascular plants • have vascular tissue • have true roots, stems, and leaves.
12 Phyla of Plants • The three phyla of nonvascular plants are collectively called bryophytes.(These plants do not have true roots, stems, or leaves & are very small and are usually found in moist areas.) • Phylum Bryophyta – mosses • Phylum Hepatophyta - liverworts. • Phylum Anthocerophyta -hornworts.
Types of non vascular plants: • Moss • Liverworts • Hornworts http://www.perspective.com/nature/plantae/bryophytes.html
9 Phyla of Vascular Plants • Vascular plants have several adaptive advantages over nonvascular plants, including specialized conducting tissues, the ability to grow large and live in many environments, and strong stems that allow them to grow tall and receive more sunlight. • 4 Seedless vascular plants(make spores) • Phylum Psilophyta, whisk ferns • Phylum Lycophyta, club mosses • Phylum Sphenophyta, horse tails • Phylum Pteridophyta. ferns
Seedless Vascular Plants club mosses • whisk ferns • ferns horse tails http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/
Seed Bearing Vascular Plants • There are two main groups of seed-bearing vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms. • Gymnosperms are characterized by naked seeds and no flowers. • Angiosperms have flowers and seeds enclosed by a fruit.
Gymnosperms • Phylum Cycadophyta (cycas) • Phylum Ginkgophyta (ginko) • Phylum Coniferophyta (cone- bearing plants) • Phylum Gnetophyta
Cycas revoluta • ginkgo • pine • gnetecaea www.botany.hawaii.edu botit.botany.wisc.edu/.../Coniferophyta.html universe-review.ca/I10-68-ginkgo.jpg
Angiosperms (makes fruit & flowers) • Phylum Anthophyta • Anthophyta, the largest phylum of plants, includes over 240,000 species of flowering plants. • Angiosperms, or the flowering plants, are seed plants characterized by the presence of a flower and fruit. • Angiosperms have been successful for many reasons, including the production of fruit that protects seeds, quick germination, and an efficient vascular system.
Angiosperms- flowers,fruit • Nearly 300,000 species • Divided into monocots & Dicots. (see next page) http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/anatomy/
Parts of a flower • Pistil (female parts) Stamen (male parts)
DICOTS • Embryo with 2 cotyledons • Flower parts in multiples of four or five • Major leaf veins reticulated • Stem vascular bundles in a ring • Roots develop from radicle • Secondary growth often present • MONOCOTS • Embryo with single cotyledon • Flower parts in multiples of three • Major leaf veins parallel • Stem vacular bundles scattered • Roots are adventitious • Secondary growth absent
Moncot & Dicot species http://hawaii.hawaii.edu/laurab/generalbotany/130syllabus.htm
Carnivorous PlantsAll are under the phylum Angiosperm • Dionaea muscipula, also known as the Venus Flytrap, is probably the most well known of the carnivorous plants. Insects are lured into the mouth-like leaves by nectar. Once an insect enters the trap it touches tiny hairs on the leaves. This sends impulses through the plant triggering the leaves to close. Glands located in the leaves release enzymes that digest the prey and the nutrients are absorbed by the leaves. http://www.botany.org/Carnivorous_Plants/
ORGANIZATION OF THE VASCULAR PLANT BODY Three tissue systems occur in all organs of the vascular plant : • 1. Dermal - makes up the outer protective coating of the plant • 2. Vascular - xylem and phloem, the conducting tissues • 3. Ground - all other tissue
Quick Genetics Lesson/Review • Haploid: Means a cell having 1 copy of chromosomes. • Diploid: means a cell having 2 copies of a chromosome. • Chromosome: The genetic information (DNA molecule) in a eukaryotic cell nucleus
Chromosomes • Organisms have 2 copies of chromosomes (DNA molecules with genetic information) • 1 copy from each parent. • The Gamete has only one copy. • What would happen if the reproductive cells were not half of the genetic information? What would be the number of chromosomes in the next generation?
Reproductive cells • Gamete:a haploid reproductive cell • like egg & sperm in animals • spores in sore forming plants • pollen & ovule in seed plants • Spore: a haploid reproductive cell that can develop into an organism with out combining with another cell • Pollen: a haploid reproductive cell that is the “male” in seed plants • Ovule: The female reproductive cell in seed plants- may or may not be haploid.
Cell Division & Reproduction • Mitosis-In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms 2 new nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. • Meiosis- In eukaryotic cell, a process of nuclear division in which the # of chromosomes is reduced to ½ of the original cell. This forms gametes ( the reproductive sex cells.)
Alternating Life Cycles • All plants have a life cycle known as alternation of generations. • In alternation of generations, a haploid gametophyte produces gametes. Gametes unite and give rise to a diploid sporophyte.
Botany • You sketch the plants in Botany,You learn to chart and plotanyLike corn or oats--You jot down notes,If you know how to jotany. • Your time, if you'll allotany,Will teach you how and what anyOld plant or treeCan do or be--And that's the use of Botany! • --Berton Braley Science News Letter March 9, 1929 • There should be no monotonyIn studying your botany;It helps to trainAnd spur the brain--Unless you haven't gotany. • It teaches you, does Botany,To know the plants and spotany,And learn just whyThey live or die--In case you plant or potany. • You learn, from reading Botany,Of wooly plants and cottonyThat grow on earth,And what they're worth,And why some spots have notany.
Part II: Introduction to Animals • OBJECTIVES: • Identify 4 important characteristics of animals • List 2 kinds of tissue that allow animals to move • Define vertebrate & invertebrate • Know that 95% of all animals are invertebrates • Name 11 animal phyla.
Some types of animals http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/phyla.html
The Nature of Animals • The animal kingdom is very diverse. • Name some animals. • How are they similar? • Discuss how the following animals get food: sponge, tapeworm, earthworm, snail, starfish, shark, elephant • How are they different? • Consider body structures & functions • Animals are either invertebrates or vertebrates- (what does that mean?)
Major Animal Phyla(see p 1084 textbook) Vertebrate: classes -Hagfishes (Myxini) -Lampreys (Cephalaspidomorphi) -Sharks (Chondrichthyes) -Ray-finned fishes -Lobe-Finned Fishes -Amphibians -Reptiles -Birds -Mammals -monotremes -marsupials -Placental mammals • Invertebrate: • Porifera (sponges) • Cnidaria (jellyfish ,coral) • Ctenophora (comb jellies) • Platyhelminthes (flatworms) • Nematoda (roundworms) • Annelida (segmented worms • Rotifera (tiny aquatic free-living animals) • Mollusca (snails, clams, squid. Octopi) • Arthropoda • arachnids, • Crusteceans • myriapoda • Insects • Echinodermata (sea urchins, starfish) • Chordata • Tunicates & lancelets • Vertebrates
Characteristics of animals Most members of the animal kingdom share these 4 Important characteristics: 1. Multicellular, no cell walls 2. Heterotrophic 3. Sexual reproduction is common 4. Mobile (at least part of life cycle)
Motility. • Most animals move for part of their life cycle. • Due to 2 tissues- nervous & muscle tissues • Example: coordination between nervous & muscle tissue needed for predator (bat) to catch its prey (mosquito) http://www.medicinebeeherbals.com/images/leaf-nosed-bat.jpg
B. Classification & Origins • Invertebrates- more than 95% of all animal species alive today do not have a backbone • Chordates– animals with a notochord.*Chordates include a couple of non-vertebrates (lancelets/sea squirts) & all the vertebrates.