Egypt 3: The Cities. Administration. Important: pp. 54-62 c. 201: Septimius Severus: all nome capitals polis -status (before only Ptolemais , Naucratis, Alex., Antinoopolis ) Introduction of boule (city council): esp. for tax collection by land-owning elite.
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Important: pp. 54-62
c. 201: Septimius Severus: all nome capitals polis-status (before only Ptolemais, Naucratis, Alex., Antinoopolis)
Introduction of boule(city council): esp. for tax collection by land-owning elite
Mix of Greek, Egyptian and Roman elements
-toplayer above Egyptian-Greek administration, e.g. prefect and other high officials in Alex.
- Exegetes: accounting for status
Appointed by council and had to report back to them
* Also special public events, such as festivals, visits of emperors etc.
‘decline’ of boule > better perceived as ‘transformation’!
Shift away from council to curial class (curiales/politeuomenoi)
Basically the councillors in Late Antiquity are only involved in tax collection
Toparchies replaced with muncipalities (pagi); at head: praeposituspagi(councillor class) > ‘decline of nome system’
‘growing power but diminished autonomy’
Because of this three-tired system, imperial government not very present, except e.g. through army
Head of these provinces: praeses
381: creation of Egypt as diocese with Augustal Prefect above other praesides
* 6th cent.: 6 or 7 provinces; from 539 dux et augustalis
Concentration of wealth but not undifferentiated unity:
Cannot live off these lands: civil/military service, other occupations
Not dependent on occupation; civil service
- Large land holders: > 100 arouras (ca. 10%): rich; councillor class
In general about 5-10% of city population could live off lands owned
For further details read pp. 68-78
e.g. processing and milling of grain, meat and fish etc.
Construction business, textile industry etc.
Metal working etc.
Ca. 8.5 % of land holders were women
Widows and orphans not socially accepted
Ca. 14 years: ephebes
Also sports: local, but also trans-regional (Panopolis), or even international (Olympic Games)
Main centres: Panopolis, Hermopolis, Oxyrhynchus
Other changes: gymnasium > circus (cf. before on ‘decline of the council’
Olympiodorus of Thebes; Nonnus(Dionysiaca), Cyrus of Panopolis (consul 441)