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The Height of Imperialism 1800 - 1914

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The Height of Imperialism 1800 - 1914. Chapter 21. Timeline. 1819 – British colony of Singapore 1848 – Mexico loses almost half of its territory to the United States 1855 – David Livingstone is first European to see Victoria Falls 1879 – Zulu king meets with British ambassadors

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  • 1819 – British colony of Singapore
  • 1848 – Mexico loses almost half of its territory to the United States
  • 1855 – David Livingstone is first European to see Victoria Falls
  • 1879 – Zulu king meets with British ambassadors
  • 1880 – “New Imperialism” begins
timeline cont
Timeline, cont
  • 1884 – France make the Vietnam Empire a protectorate
  • 1896 – Britain and France agree to maintain Thailand as a buffer state
  • 1898 – The United States defeats Spain for control over the Philippines
  • 1900 – Virtually all of SE Asia is under European rule
  • 1910 – Emiliano Zapata leads peasant movement in Mexico
colonial rule in southeast asia
Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
  • Vocabulary
    • Imperialism – extension of a nation’s power over other lands
    • Protectorate – political unit that depends on another government for its protection
    • Indirect rule – local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status in a new colonial setting
    • Direct rule – local elites are removed from power and replaced with a new set of officials brought from the mother country
the new imperialism
The New Imperialism
  • Nineteenth century - Western expansion into Asia and Africa begins
    • These nations were a source of industrial raw materials
    • Market for manufactured goods
      • Oil, tin, rubber needed to fuel European economies
imperialism cont
Imperialism, cont.
  • 1880s – Europe begins to scramble for overseas territory.
  • Instead of “trading posts” in countries, Europe looked for direct control of countries.
  • Europeans wanted more of a direct control over raw materials that were being imported
reasons for expansion
Reasons for Expansion
  • Strong economic motive
    • Looking for economic markets for products
    • Raw materials – rubber, oil, tin needed
    • Looking for more direct control of areas with raw materials
reason for expansion cont
Reason for Expansion, cont.
  • Heated rivalries with European states
    • Colonies source of national prestige for countries
    • European states sought to acquire colonies abroad in order to gain an advantage over their rivals
  • Imperialism tied to Social Darwinism and Racism
    • Best survive and certain races are superior to others
reasons for expansion cont
Reasons for Expansion, cont.
  • Europeans also saw Expansion as a religious obligation to spread Christianity
  • Humanitarian approach – Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize “primitive” people
    • “white man’s burden”
colonial takeover in se asia
Colonial Takeover in SE Asia
  • Great Britain
    • “The sun never sets on the British empire.”
    • Singapore – major stepping point for traffic going to or from China.
    • Burma – wanted control to protect its possessions in India.
  • Missionaries in Vietnam
    • Local authorities saw missionaries as threat to Confucian doctrine
  • Makes Vietnamese Empire a French protectorate (dependent on France for protection)
free states
Free States
  • Siam (Thailand) - only country in SE Asia free
  • King Mongkut (The King and I)
  • Son, King Chulalongkorn
    • Both promoted Western learning and maintained friendly relations with the major European powers
  • In 1896, Britain and France agreed to maintain Siam as an independent buffer state in SE Asia
the united states
The United States
  • 1898: Spanish-American War
    • Under the leadership of Commodore George Dewey, the U.S. defeats Spain in Manila Bay in the Philippines.
    • President McKinley makes the Philippines a colony.
      • Emilio Aguinaldo revolts against
      • the U.S. but U.S. keeps control
    • Takes control of Puerto Rico and Guam
direct vs indirect rule
Direct vs. Indirect Rule
  • Dutch East Indies example of Indirect Rule. Local landed aristocrats controlled their own government. Indirect rule was less costly and more convenient
  • Burma had direct rule as the monarchy opposed colonial rule.
  • Indochina had both
colonial economies
Colonial Economies
  • Raw materials
    • Burma – teak wood
    • Malaya – rubber and tin
    • East Indies – spices, tea, coffee and palm oil
    • Philippines – sugar
  • Plantation agriculture in

some countries

    • Peasants worked as wage laborers owned by foreign investors
benefits of colonial rule
Benefits of Colonial Rule
  • Beginning of modern economic system
  • Colonial governments built railroads, highways, and other structures
  • Export market raised up entrepreneurial class
  • Most countries were against colonial rule though