Humanistic Personality Theories AP Psychology
Humanistic Perspective • A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience and the individual’s self awareness and freedom to choose. • Interested in the capacity for personal growth & self-fulfillment with an emphasis on human potential. • Sees people as innately good. • Studies fulfilled and healthy individuals rather than troubled people • Felt other theories were too deterministic and denied the importance of free will
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) • Humanistic psychologist who developed the hierarchy of needs • Believed that self-actualization is the ultimate psychological need of reaching one’s potential.
Abraham Maslow: Self-Actualization • According to Maslow, the need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential • Characteristics include: • Self aware and self accepting • Open, spontaneous, loving, and caring • Not paralyzed by other’s opinions • Focused on a particular task
Development of Personality Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers-Development of Personality • Actualizing tendency—the most basic human motive that is the innate drive to maintain and enhance the ourselves
Actualizing tendency • An example of the actualizing tendency is the “little voice” within us to try harder and never give up.
Actualizing tendency • Some people believe that competitiveness cannot be taught; but rather is something that resides inside a person. • In other words, it is something you are born with, or is innate.
Carl Rogers • Self-concept—how you think about yourself • Affected by…. • Positive regard—conditional and unconditional – the sense of be loved and valued by other people.
Conditional Positive Regard • Person is valued and loved only when the he/she behaves in a way that is acceptable to others. • I will love you IF you get good grades.
conditional Positive Regard will help to create… • Can lead to incongruence– a state in which a child’s self-concept conflicts with their own experience.
Unconditional Positive Regard • An attitude of total acceptance toward another person despite their faults and failings • This is needed for one to grow up healthy and be congruent. • Based on genuineness & empathy
Unconditional Positive Regard will help to create… • Congruence – A person’s sense of self is consistent with their emotions & experiences. • Your real self is similar to your ideal self
Comparing Rogers to Freud Carl Rogers Sigmund Freud Pessimistically viewed humans as hostile, antisocial, destructive & evil We need society restraints/laws to keep humans in line and prevent the destruction of the human race. • Viewed people as positive, forward-moving, constructive, realistic and trustworthy. • People are innately good • Humans will choose to act in ways that serve to improve society and perpetuate the human race.
Evaluating Humanism • Humanism has influenced therapy, child-rearing, and the workplace • Laid the foundation for positive psychology – studying what is right about people
Criticisms of Humanism • Difficult to test or validate scientifically • Tends to be too optimistic • Has a hard time explaining some of the more destructive aspects of human nature • wars & human cruelty