seasonal and site fluctuations of chloride levels in the saratoga lake watershed l.
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Seasonal and Site Fluctuations of Chloride Levels in the Saratoga Lake Watershed. Environmental Studies Capstone Project 2007. What is Salt?. Chemical composition of salt (NaCl) Used as a deicer on roadways (NaCl, KCl, MgCl, CaCl) (RiverSides, 2005).

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seasonal and site fluctuations of chloride levels in the saratoga lake watershed

Seasonal and Site Fluctuations of Chloride Levels in the Saratoga Lake Watershed

Environmental Studies

Capstone Project 2007

slide2

What is Salt?

  • Chemical composition of salt (NaCl)
  • Used as a deicer on roadways (NaCl, KCl, MgCl, CaCl) (RiverSides, 2005)

(www.rbwm.gov.uk, www.newyorkwater.org, www.earthhopenetwork.net, www.gurnee.il.us)

impacts of salt on the environment
Impacts of Salt on the Environment
  • Impacts on aquatic communities
      • Invertebrates and plants
  • Impacts on terrestrial communities
      • Can affect areas up to 1 km away from roadways (Habron et al., 2004)
      • Colonization of invasive species
  • Impacts on water
      • Affects smaller waterways most

(Trombulak and Frissell, 2000)

impacts of salt on humans
Impacts of Salt on Humans
  • Impacts on humans debatable
    • Can’t remove salt at water treatment plant → hypertension (Special Report 235, 1991)
  • Metal Corrosion
    • Property Damage
    • Trace metals (Hg, As, Cr, Pb)

(Fischel, 2001)

hypothesis
We anticipated differences in chloride & conductivity levels from:

Upstream & Downstream

Site to Site

Season to Season

Hypothesis
sampling
Sampling
  • Four sampling dates: 2/24/07, 3/3/07, 3/24/07, 4/6/07
  • Conductivity measurements for all four dates
  • Water samples on 2/24/07 and 4/6/07
conductivity chloride explained
Conductivity & Chloride Explained

Conductivity: a measure of the ability of a

given substance to conduct electric current

(www.dictionary.com)

what it means the saratoga lake watershed and the future
What it means… The Saratoga Lake Watershed and the Future
  • Highest levels in Lake Lonely Outlet
      • large roads
  • Lowest levels in Upper Kayaderosseras
      • small roads
  • Use data as a component of long-term consistent data for future studies
  • Political officials in Saratoga County can use data for future road salt debates
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Skidmore College
  • Environmental Studies Program
  • Water Resources Initiative
  • Karen Kellogg, Judy Halstead, Bob Turner,

Bob Jones, Cathy Gibson, and Conor Taff

  • Jim Turner (for the use of his land)
  • Dominick Gabriel and Peter van Kuren
  • Our Parents
references
References

2005. The Weight of Evidence. RiverSides: Where Water Quality Begins.

http://www.riversides.org/index.php?cat=3&page1=8&page2=36

Committee on the Comparative Costs of Rock Salt and Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) for Highway Deicing. 1991. Highway Deicing: Comparing Salt and Calcium Magnesium Acetate. Special Report 235, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., USA.

Demers, C. L., and R. W. Sage Jr. 1989. Effects of Road Deicing Salt on Chloride Levels in Four Adirondack Streams. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 49: 369-373.

Habron, G.B., M.D. Kaplowitz, and R.L. Levine. 2004. A Soft Systems Approach to Watershed Management: A Road Salt Case Study. Environmental Management 33(6):776-787.

Trombulak, S. C., and C. A. Frissell. 1999. Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities. Conservation Biology 14(1): 18-30.

www.dictionary.com, www.earthhopenetwork.net, www.gurnee.il.us,

www.newyorkwater.org, www.rbwm.gov.uk