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Content adaptation for gradual Quality of Service. Vania Conan, Arnaud Pierre Thales vania.conan@fr.thalesgroup.com arnaud.pierre@fr.thalesgroup.com. User with Mobile phone. User with laptop PC. Group of users. User with PDA. Example problem: video over heterogeneous networks. Problem:

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content adaptation for gradual quality of service

Content adaptation for gradual Quality of Service

Vania Conan, Arnaud Pierre

Thales

vania.conan@fr.thalesgroup.com

arnaud.pierre@fr.thalesgroup.com

example problem video over heterogeneous networks

User with Mobile phone

User with laptop PC

Group of users

User with PDA

Example problem: video over heterogeneous networks
  • Problem:
  • How to manage QoS in heterogeneous networks characterised by various types of radio links (UMTS, WLAN, …) , load variations and typology.

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

presentation plan
Presentation plan
  • 1- Content adaptation
    • problem
    • applications
  • 2- Middleware application Layer
    • Concepts
    • architecture
  • 3- Overlay networks
    • principles
    • current work
  • 4- Overlay management
    • PDP/PEP approach
  • 5- Conclusions

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

the concept of content adaptation module

Conditions

Input

information

Content

adapted

information

Content

Content

adaptation

The concept of Content Adaptation Module
  • Examples of needs for content adaptation
  • HTML content adaptation
  • VRML
  • Video

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

slide5

Progressive Transmission by quality

Compressed Image bitstream

0.25bpp

1bpp

lossless

0.125bpp

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

slide6

Progressive Transmission by resolution

Compressed Image bitstream

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

content adaptation

adapt information Nature or/and Structure

to a set of constraints

Content

adaptation

Wireless

Network

End user

Equipment

User

Profile

Content adaptation
  • Wireless network constraints
    • low bandwidth (low signal power)
    • connection cut hazards
  • End user equipment (heterogeneous)
    • laptop PC
    • PDA environment
    • mobile phone environment
  • user profile
    • user role in the organisation
    • access control

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

presentation plan1
Presentation plan
  • 1- Content adaptation
    • problem
    • applications
  • 2- Middleware application Layer
    • Concepts
    • architecture
  • 3- Overlay networks
    • principles
    • current work
  • 4- Overlay management
    • PDP/PEP approach
  • 5- Conclusions

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

unified information format

Information Content

Header

Rules

CAM

Incoming cell

Output cell

unified information format

Cell:: (Header, Content)>

Header:: (Parameter +)

Content:: (Properties, Data)

Properties:: (Property *)

Information structure: a “cell”

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

information flow
Information Flow

Content adaptation Service

information level

cell level

00101101…

text...

transport level

Cell Parsers

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

a system of rules
A system of rules
  • If [setOfProperties] Then [...] Else […]

Content properties

Context

(System state)

Type

Of Content

Set of Rules

Loaded Service

Adapted Content

Content

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

rule design dtd description
Rule design DTD Description

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>

<!-- DTD: RULE STRUCTURE --><!ELEMENT rule (ruleID, instruction)>

<!ELEMENT ruleID (#PCDATA)>

<!ELEMENT instruction (condition, thenExpression, elseExpression)>

<!ELEMENT condition (booleanExpression)>

<!ELEMENT booleanExpression (operator, operandList)>

<!ELEMENT operator (and|or|not)>

<!ELEMENT and EMPTY>

<!ELEMENT or EMPTY>

<!ELEMENT not EMPTY>

<!ELEMENT operandList (operand+)>

<!ELEMENT operand (booleanExpression|property)>

<!ELEMENT property EMPTY>

<!ATTLIST propertyname CDATA #REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT thenExpression (instruction|statement)>

<!ELEMENT elseExpression (instruction|statement)>

<!ELEMENT statement (serviceID)>

<!ELEMENT serviceID (#PCDATA)>

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

module architecture

Libraries of Resources

External Communication

Serv.

Rules

Info

Events generation

Module

Messages

Management

Module

Cell parser Library

Process

Process Management

CAM State Management

Processor

Factory

Statistics & evaluation

CAM

State

Profile

Management

Information Capture

Information Delivery

Cell

capture

Content extraction

Cell

generation

Content formatting

Module Architecture

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

where to find content adaptation

Relay

EntityA

LAN

WLAN

EntityB

Adaptation Module

Where to find content adaptation?
  • Client-based integration

PDA content Adaptation

        • HTML, images
  • Server-based integration

Module implemented by server routines

        • VRML objects
  • Network based integration

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

presentation plan2
Presentation plan
  • 1- Content adaptation
    • problem
    • applications
  • 2- Middleware application Layer
    • Concepts
    • Architecture
  • 3- Overlay networks
    • principles
    • current work
  • 4- Overlay management
    • PDP/PEP approach
  • 5- Conclusions

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

definition

EntityA

EntityB

Overlay nodes

Definition
  • An overlay network is a network built on top of existing networks
    • replaces some of the functionality of underlying network
      • e.g. addressing, routing, service model
    • adds an additional layer of indirection
      • builds a virtual network
    • makes new services available to applications
      • Resource discovery
      • Enhanced features (multicast, security, reliability)
  • It is an alternative to
    • changing the global operational infrastructure

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

pros reuse
Pros: Reuse
  • Reuse of existing infrastructure (hardware, software, providers)
  • No modification of existing network layer software/protocols
  • But
    • Deploy new software on top of existing software
      • P2P software, ...
    • Possibly deploy new hardware
      • cache servers, ...
  • Support evolving network services
    • expensive to develop entirely new networking hardware/software
    • all networks after the telephone have begun as overlay networks

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

pros reuse1
Pros: Reuse !
  • Not every node needs/wants overlay network service all the time
    • e.g., QoS guarantees for best-effort traffic
  • Overlay network may be too heavyweight for some nodes
    • e.g., consumes too much memory, cycles, or bandwidth
  • Overlay network may have unclear security properties
    • e.g., may be used for service denial attack
  • Overlay network may scale poorly
    • e.g. may require n2 state or communication

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

slide19
Cons
  • Adds overhead
    • Adds a layer in networking stack
      • Additional packet headers, processing load at the nodes
    • Sometimes, additional work is redundant
      • E.g. addressing
  • Adds complexity
    • Layering does not eliminate complexity, it only manages it
    • Another layer ! more possible unintended interaction between layers
      • E.g., corruption drops on wireless interpreted as congestion drops by TCP

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

presentation plan3
Presentation plan
  • 1- Content adaptation
    • problem
    • applications
  • 2- Middleware application Layer
    • Concepts
    • architecture
  • 3- Overlay networks
    • principles
    • current work
  • 4- Overlay management
    • PDP/PEP approach
  • 5- Conclusions

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

qos policy management

Proxy

Client

Filtering service eg. JPEG2000

Client

QoS policy management

Negotiated contract (SLA)

Decision point

QoS policy (SLS)

JPEG2000 server

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

network deployment

AR

AR

Router

Router+ PEP

Network Deployment
  • Two steps procedure:
  • - at call set up: opening a session and launching adaptation set up : PDP
  • - during the session: filtering of content : PEP

JRM

PS

PDP

Video server

user

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

video adaptation concept demonstrator

PDA client

PC client

Video broadcasting server

proxy

Lite PC client

Video adaptation concept demonstrator
  • The system is composed of three distinct modules:
  • A broadcasting video server
  • acts as a source of JPEG images.
  • Its main role is to generate a video flow of images which are sent to a specific proxy.
  • A filter proxy
  • It receives the image flow from the source and transmits it to the client. The “video” flow is truncated according to the QoS parameters required by each client.
  • Input: flow of JPEG images issued by the source, client transmit/QoS requests
  • Output: personalized “Video” flow for each client
  • the client module
  • After sending to the proxy connection and QoS parameters, its role is to receive decompress and display the “video” flow.
  • Input: flow of JPEG images issued by the proxy,
  • Output: client/QoS requests for configuring the proxy.

Flow of JPEG images

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

presentation plan4
Presentation plan
  • 1- Content adaptation
    • problem
    • applications
  • 2- Middleware application Layer
    • Concepts
    • architecture
  • 3- Overlay networks
    • principles
    • current work
  • 4- Overlay management
    • PDP/PEP approach
  • 5- Conclusions

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Overlay network built on top of the Internet for content adaptation
    • Middleware supports
      • processing of structured data
      • dynamic upload of new processing features
      • rules-based external supervision
    • On going work
      • Link with overlay management
      • Application to multicast video delivery

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004

slide26
End
  • Thank you !

Séminaire QoS, 25 juin 2004