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Agenda: Introduction Physical geography Regional geography Tourism geography
Introduction The realm of North Africa and South-west Asia had a huge role for world`s development since early ages. Almost all first civilizations were located exactly in this or around this regions ( Egypt, Greek, Rome, Mesopotamia, Sumer).
North Africa and South-West Asia Countries of the realm: Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Yemen, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, UAE, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria.
Landscape. One of the most typical feature of North Africa and South-west Asia is deserts. It covers the majority of all teritory from the coast of Atlantic ocean in Morocco until the Persian peninsula. Nevertheless, it still has mountains :1.Atlas mountains. (in Algeria, Tunis and Morocco territory).2.Atbay hills (along the Red sea).3.Caucasus mountains (between Black and Caspian sea).4.Elburz mountains (along northern board of Iran). 1.Physical Geography
Biggest deserts : Sahara –biggest desert in the world Arabian desert in Saudi Arabia. Syrian desert. Namib desert.
Climate • Almost all territory of this realm is desert. Exceptions are the delta of Nile and Tigris &Euphrates, the shore of Mediterranean sea and oasis in the middle of deserts. Therefore, inhabitants of this region always called water the biggest treasure. • The location of region is tropical zone, which means very hot and dry weather all over the year. • Average quantity of rainfall is 10-30 mm per year. (Lithuania- 720mm per year) • High amplitude of day and night temperature. • High, permanent pressure
Tectonics and natural hazard The North Africa and South-west Asia locates in three main tectonic platforms: Euro-Asian; Arabic; African; In the last 10 years mostly all earth quakes happened in the territory of Turkey. All other interactions between platforms causes almost no hazard.
Natural resources As the soil in majority of all territory is deplorable, natural resources act one of the main role in keeping and raising region’s economy. Almost 60% of all Earth’s natural resources locates exactly in North Africa and South-west Asia. The corporation OPEC in 2011 published the reserve data of gas and oil: Saudi Arabia has 18% of all world’s reserve Iran- 9% Iraq- ~8% UAE and Kuwait –12%
According to current estimates, more than 80% of the world's proven oil reserves are located in OPEC Member Countries, with the bulk of OPEC oil reserves in the Middle East, amounting to 65% of the OPEC total. OPEC Member Countries have made significant additions to their oil reserves in recent years, for example, by adopting best practices in the industry, realizing intensive explorations and enhancing recoveries. As a result, OPEC's proven oil reserves currently stand at well above 1,190 billion barrels http://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/data_graphs/330.htm
Almost 50% countries of all realm has natural resources. (map on the right) The graph below expresses the impact in all world of this region as a major supplier of all gas and oil on earth.
Population North Africa and South-west Asia has more than 400 million people. Largest countries in this scale are: Turkey (77 million) Iran (74 million) Egypt ( 78 million) 2.Regional geography
Life pyramids Egypt 2011 Iran is compared to U.K.(2008)
2.Regional geography As the biggest part of all territory takes desert, the place, where living is almost impossible the majority of people live near the water. Examples:The coast of Red, Mediterranean, Caspian seas, Persian bay, or near the rivers like Nile, Tigris & Euphrates. In fact, these places have the biggest density in all region. Reasons: Possibilities of fertile soil More labor demand Deserts are barely settled in. It means no infrastructure, no living conveniences.
Biggest cities in the region: • Teheran( 6.7 mil) • Istanbul (6.6 mil) • Cairo (6.0 mil) • Baghdad (3.8-5.8 mil) • Tel Aviv (3.2 mil) • Casablanca (3.0 mil)
Politics Politics in North Africa and South-west Asia has a huge diversity. As one of the main religions is Islam, it causes one person’s leading in many countries. Only recently, we can follow breaking news from this region, especially from North Africa or Iraq, Iran or Afghanistan. ! In addition, the unrest in the realm is also caused by huge natural resources.
Examples: Libya – few months ago ,Libya’s rebels announced that they finally are free from dictator M. Gaddafi. Egypt- Rebels of Egypt last year overthrown the dictator H. Mubarak. Iraq- in 2003 USA caught the dictator of country S. Hussein and released Iraq. Unfortunately, it is still occupied by USA. Afghanistan – release of Afghanistan. But still supported by USA.
More than 90% of all realm has Arab people. Religion As all main monotheistic religions (Islam, Christianity, Judaism) came of this region conflicts between supporters of various religions and it’s branch-lines as well. This problem is still a current issue. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/38479/Asia/233444/Southwest-Asia
3. Tourism geography Tourism in this realm is much more diverse than in any other region. It is caused by very different countries located in it, E.g: Economical level: Yemen- 260 $ / GNP Per Capita. United Arab Emirates- 17.400 $ / GNP Per Capita. Israel- 15.920 $/ GNP Per Capita. Tunisia- 1.820 $/ GNP Per Capita. LL.Hudman,R.Jackson 1998 “Geography of tourism and trave” 3rd. Ed.
Major Tourist Destinations: Islamic capitals Petra and Jerkash (Jordan) Jerusalem Holy Land sites Cairo, Great Pyramids, and the Sphinx (Egypt) Luxor (Egypt) Istanbul Tunis and Coastal resorts (Tunisia) Algiers Casablanca, Tangier and Marakesch (Morocco). LL.Hudman,R.Jackson 1998 “Geography of tourism and travel” 3rd. Ed.
Types of tourism, wide-spread in the North Africa and Southwest Asia. 1.Pilgrimages associated with Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. LL.Hudman,R.Jackson 1998 “Geography of tourism and travel” 3rd. Ed.
2.International tourism is concentrated in a few countries of the region (e.g. Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE).
3. Historical and archeological sites of ancient cultures are one of the major attractions and reasons of visiting the realm.
Tourism Demand The political situation has changed the tourist map of the region. Lebanon’s ongoing civil war has destroyed its formerly important tourist industry. The continuing stress between Iran and Iraq and Kuwait, the Gulf War, the Israeli-Arab dispute, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, and difficulties between the moderate and radical Arab states combine the inhibit tourism in many areas of the region. Government decrease against Western tourists in Saudi Arabia and Yemen limit tourist activity. In spite of this, the historical importance of the realm as a cradle of Western civilization continues to attract visitors. LL.Hudman,R.Jackson 1998 “Geography of tourism and travel” 3rd. Ed. P.329.
Based on type of tourism, can claim that domestic tourism is not popular among region’s local inhabitants, because: Low quality of living Low salaries As well as domestic tourism, the outbound tourism is not very popular because of the similar reasons. The main role for the realm acts inbound tourism, which for many countries is one of the main income source. Domestic Tourism
Tourism Supply in North Africa and Southwest Asia As almost the whole realm is still on the stage of developing, only some countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, UAE, Israel can offer average or high quality touristic infrastructure - hotels, resorts, modern airports, touristic areas.
Nevertheless, higher developed countries as well as less developed countries still attract tourists with primary resources. Archeolgical and historical heritage acts the main role in this region’s tourism.
Historical heritage examples: 1.Pyramids (7 mil. visitors) 2.Luxor and the city of death (7 mil. visitors) 3.The city of Petra (500 000 visitors) 4. The Great Wall of Jerusalem(1.5 mil. visitors) 5.The holy city of Mecca (12 mil. visitors)
Wellness This part of tourism is significant for this region because of few aspects: Natural resources (Dead Sea) Traditions. (E.g. Turkish bath) Many of well-developed regions of this realm has a high quality of spa-resorts.
Resorts related to health and wellness: 1.Sweimah Resort, Jordan. (Near the Dead Sea) 2.Hurgada, Egypt. (Red Sea)
Transport The accessibility of transportation in the region may be described as average. Except of Persian Gulf countries, none has high quality high ways. Mostly, streets and ways are modernized in the areas of tourists. (E.g. Along the coast of Tunisia, or along the coast of Red Sea in Egypt). Main airports: -Dubai (29,291,927) -Istanbul (20,709,875) -Cairo (16,148,480)
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