Napoleon crowned as Emperor • 1804- he decided to make himself Emperor, which the French supported. • took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head-act of arrogance showed he was more powerful than the Church
Creating an Empire • Sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. in 1803 for $15 million. Helped finance his operations in Europe. • By 1812, the only major European countries free from Napoleon’s control were Britain, the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, & Sweden
2nd. Marriage Josephine • Josephine did not produce a son (an heir), so he divorced her & married Marie Louise (an Austrian princess). • She produced a son- Napoleon II Marie Louise
Three Costly Mistakes • Continental system- blockade set up to hurt Britain, hurt France in the end which weakened its economies • Peninsular War- Napoleon kicked the Spanish king out of Portugal & put his brother in charge, fighting happens, 300,000 French troops died • Invasion of Russia- Russia refused to stop selling grain to Britain. Napoleon invaded Russia & his troops were defeated, starving, & freezing by the end (Russia used scorched-earth policy—burning & destroying everything so it can’t be used)
Louis XVIII Napoleon’s Downfall • 1813- Battle of Leipzig—Napoleon’s army defeated • 1814- Napoleon gave up his throne & was exiled to the island of Elba • Louis XVI’s brother took over in France—Louis XVIII (unpopular king, French peasants feared he would undo revolution reforms) • Napoleon escaped from Elba & took control in 1815 • At the Battle of Waterloo—Napoleon’s army finally defeated & he was exiled to St. Helena (lived for 6 years until dying, possibly from cancer) Napoleon at St. Helena
Congress of Vienna • Series of meetings to establish order & stability after Napoleon’s reign in Europe • Prince Metternich- “leader” of the meetings. Had 3 goals: • Wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries • Restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others • Wanted to restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon took over • *Concert of Europe- assured that nations would help one another if revolution broke out.