Palestinian Refugees and IDPs Al Nakba and Ongoing Nakba
Al Nakba is Ongoing NakbaThe Necessity to Review Israel Nature, the Root causes and International Responsibilities Israel is a regime of a colonizing power under the guise of occupation which includes many of the worst features of apartheid, UN Special Rapporteur, Prof. John Dugard: Human Rights Situation in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories
Historic Palestine • 1917: Jewish- owned land3-4 % • Jews were7% of the entire population • Creation of the Protracted Conflict • 1- Establishment of Zionist movement as part of the international colonial movement • 2- The Western Colonial Movement in the Middle East: - Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 - Balfour Declaration (1917) - British Mandate (1917-1948) • 3- UN General Assembly Resolution # 181 Partition Plan • 4- Creation of the state of Israel
The Roots of The Conflict Palestine from 1917- 1947 British Mandate policy: 1917-1948 Facilitating Jewish immigration and settlement in Palestine (denationalize Palestinians and legalize Jewish immigrants), - Facilitating land transfer to Jewish/ Zionist Agencies, - Oppressing Palestinians uprising and closing eyes or encouraging undergrounds Zionist Militia Urgon, Haganah and others Early Withdrawal 1947: Jewish owned- land was8% Jews became32%of the entire population.
Partition Plan Division of Mandate/ Historic Palestine: 56% for a Jewish State although they owned only 8% and were approximately one third of the entire population. 43 % for Arab State 1% for Jerusalem and Bethlehem to be managed and administered by special international system
Creation of the state of Israel = AL NAKBA (Catastrophe) • 1948 war: 78% under the Israeli Control • 22% divided into West Bank controlled by Jordan, and Gaza Strip administered by Egypt. • More than 750,000 Palestinians were displaced and became Refugees • More than 35,000 Palestinians Became internally Displaced persons in Israel. • 532 Villages and towns were destroyed partially or entirely.
Lands Occupied by Israel in1967 War • Israel occupied Sinai, Golan Heights and entire Palestine (OPT), • New wave of Palestinian refugees, about 400,000 Refugees, • Israel announced United Jerusalem as its Capital • Israel controlled over nature resources and imposed Restrictions on economic development
Ongoing Nakba • Construction of Israeli – Jewish Settlements • Control over all resource • Enacting of Laws enabling it to confiscate Palestinian owned land 3,250 km out of 5,800 km in West Bank, • Demolition of more than 18,000 houses from 1967-2007 • 25% of Palestinians living in Palestine were arrested • Discriminatory policies against Palestinians living inside Israel, and those in West Bank Examples: • prevention of Refugees and IDPs from return, restitution, compensation, (laws and Judgments) • Unrecognized villages • The Wall and its Associated regime (segregation), • Permits: work permits, housing permits, traveling permits, cultivation permits…etc) • Checkpoints and Closure areas and measures, restriction on movements • Denial of Family Reunification, • Arbitrary torture and arrests, demolition of houses, assassination, or extrajudicial killing and The list is long… Ongoing Nakba is an institutionalized Nakb a completion of what started in 1948: the ethnic cleansing process / displacement and dispossession of Palestinians, depopulation of the Palestinian communities, confiscation of Land and prevention Palestinians from exercising their rights
Bypass Roads Israeli Bypass roads is about 800 Km about 3 % of historic Palestine • To ease the construction of Settlements The Israeli bypass roads in the Palestinian Territory were erected to ease the construction of the illegal Israeli settlements of the West Bank • To limit the development of Palestine was planned and paid by the Israeli Governorate, aiming to limit any kind of construction and development in the Palestinian communities • To Prevent the establishment of Palestinian state bypass roads in the occupied Palestinian territory as a part of its policy to coerce facts on the ground; ultimately affecting the outcome of negotiation with the Palestinians; including the establishment of a viable contiguous Palestinian State
Future Palestinian promised State The best Israeli offer was: • 93% of the West Bank cut off by settlements and bypass roads • Excluding Jerusalem (Israeli sovereignty) • 87 settlements with 35% of settlers (there are about 250,000 settlers in West Bank and 200.000 in Jerusalem) • 3% in exchange of the 7%
The Wall • More than 700 Km in length • 54% of the West Bank will remain after the wall (Less than 12 % of Historic Palestine • 85% of the Water wells and resources are controlled by Israel Palestinian affected directly by the wall • More than 160,000 of Palestinians are Isolated in cantons behind the wall • About 200,000 are separated from the cultivated land 115,000 Palestinians have been displaced as a result of the wall
Refugees and IDP Population in 2006-07 • All Palestinians (10.1 millions) are stateless. 70% of the Palestinian population is either refugee or IDP. • In 2007, there are 7 millions Palestinian refugees (6 millions 1948 Palestinian refugees and 1 million 1967 Palestinian refugees). • In 2006, there were 450,000 Palestinian IDPs (325,000 IDPs in Israel and 115,000 IDPs in the occupied Palestinian territory).
Protection gap • There is no UN Agency currently providing protection, in particular, searching for durable solutions for Palestinian refugees and IDPs. • UN Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA) → mandate to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees in its area of operations (OPT, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon). • UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) → mandate to protect Palestinian refugees but Agency is no longer active. • UNHCR → mandate to protect and assist Palestinian refugees outside UNRWA's areas of operations. Not actively searching for durable solutions however.
Review of Israel Nature • Israel’s Regime over Palestinians is Unique; it is a combination of Apartheid, colonialism and occupation • As Occupying Power Israel has been transferring indigenous people to settle Jewish Zionists • As colonial state Israel has been working on changing the demographic nature of the land for the benefit of Jewish communities • As apartheid Israel has institutionalized discrimination and segregation, (Laws, policies and practices).
The Best Solution • Ending the occupation, • Ending the discriminatory policies against Palestinians • Enabling refugees to exercise their right to return, restitution, and compensation based on GA Resolution 194 and SC Resolution 237. The two State solution is not viable anymore The best way is: The establishment of the one democratic secular state for entire its people irrespective of their religion, race, ethnic...or any basis of discrimination.