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Brazilian overview on key issues. Brazil UK Startup Meeting Oxford Brookes – May 18 2010. Structure. Some general features of the Brazilian urban and regional development trajectory

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brazilian overview on key issues

Brazilian overview onkeyissues

Brazil UK Startup Meeting Oxford Brookes – May 18 2010

structure
Structure
  • Some general featuresoftheBrazilianurbanand regional developmenttrajectory
  • Territorial andproductiverestructuringandtheemergenceofnewstatespaces – some observationsonBrazil
  • Issues for discussion – the network
slide6

Human Development

% of people older than 15, with less than 4 years of school - (Base – 2000)

slide7

Participation of cities in the GDP (2006)

25% of the national GDP is located

in 5 cities

50% of the national GDP is located

In 50 municípios

slide8

Participação dos Municípios no PIB Brasileiro

75% of the GDP in 300 cities

85% of the GDP in 751 cities

slide9

Participação dos Municípios no PIB Brasileiro

95% of the GDP in 2202 cities

99% of the GDP in 4205 cities

slide10

Participation (%) of the main city networks in the GDP, agro-bussiness, industry and services – 2002/2006

slide11

Economic development has spread over the last decades, but there are limits to macro-spatial deconcentration outside the south-eastern/southern states

slide12

Reddots:

Intense

Dynamism

(% growth

of city

GDP)

slide14

Reddots - Veryhighincome cities with a

veryhighlevelofdynamism

dinâmicos

slide15

Reddots:

Highincome

cities with

dynamism

slide16

Verylow

Income

Cities

Withdynamism

These are 454 cities concentrated in the NE states andthe

Amazonia

other features of the urban development trajectory
Other features of the urban development trajectory
  • Growth and increasing density of the periphery of the metropolitan areas, state capitals and larger urban poles in the country, characterized by a pattern of unequal acess to land and urban services, and environmental degradation
  • Deterioration and derelict areas in the central areas of larger cities and metropolitan areas
  • The opening up of new urban-peri-urban rural frontiers in the central–eastern and Amazone regions (agrobusiness etc.) triggers environmental and land based conflicts, lack of urbanity and conflicts with indigenous population
other features of the urban development trajectory ctd
Other features of the urban development trajectory (ctd)
  • Urban economic growth and population inflow of cities located in resource rich areas (minerals, agro-business, petrol), frequently generating environmemntal degradation, intense land based conflicts and relocation of indigenous communities
  • Urban economic growth of city regions that polarize, both along the coastal zones as well in the interior regions of the country (satelite – platforms?) – cities located along the Amazon river, along the highway Brasília-Cuiabá-Porto Velho-Rio Branco, Belém-Brasília and, more recently, the highway, Cuiabá-Santarém.
slide19

Territorial and productive restructuring and the emergence of new state spaces – some observations on the Brazilian scenario

brazil in the 1990s
Brazil in the 1990s
  • Opening up of the Brazilian macroeconomic framework, without compensating industrial, technological and regional development policies
  • Colapse of the national developmental regime
  • Neo-localist regimes, tax wars, regulatory downgrading, federal government laissez-faire
  • Competitive federal relations (states, cities)
more recently however
More recently, however.....
  • Advances in federal housing and urban development policies – creation of the ministry, statute of the city, institutionalization of participatory structures (conselho das cidades), substantial increases in financial resources for the housing and urban development sector (PAC, Minha casa minha vida);
  • Metropolitan agenda is being taken up again (new law on public consortia etc.)
nevertheless progress is said to be slow
Nevertheless, progress is said to be slow....
  • Application of the statute of the city is slow – vested interests in real estate markets
  • Federal programs and financial resources often “bypass” the institutional and participatory structures that have been created;
  • There is no national program for metropolitan governance
issues for the network and the research
Issues for the network and the research
  • Urban environmental justice – combining the urban/housing and the green agenda in an inclusive and sustainable manner – last few years – after convergence there are increasing conflicts (e.g environmental versus the housing movements);
  • Metropolitan governance and nation building in a post – keynesian scenario? – going beyond socio-institutional engineering – multi-scalar policies;
  • Regional development in an increasingly fragmented national space economy – archipelago economies in resource rich frontier regions – urban-peri-urban rural linkages without a national framework – from “macro-regional” to new regionalist regional policies?
last but not least linking the urban policy agenda with climate change
Last but not least.... Linking the urban policy agenda with climate change
  • Limits, potentials, threats and risks – what is the role of cities in the debate (the scalar issue);
  • How to set goals and targets
  • Instruments – economic and regulatory instruments – leakages associated with city activism;
  • Welfare economic considerations – where to tax (production chains and resource intensive regions)/how to evaluate policy instruments?
  • Political economy framework – who gains/who loses?