70’s. 1970s. A Turning Point. Social Movements from 1960s advanced. Backlash by Americans feeling economic insecurity and loss. Contributes to rightward turn in American politics. New Deal liberal reform movement shattered. Culture wars we are still fighting. 1960s Hangover.
A Turning Point • Social Movements from 1960s advanced. • Backlash by Americans feeling economic insecurity and loss. • Contributes to rightward turn in American politics. • New Deal liberal reform movement shattered. • Culture wars we are still fighting.
1960s Hangover • National exhaustion from the reform and conflict of the 1960s, but still an ongoing commitment to social change by: • Environmentalists, feminists, gays and lesbians, people of color
Environmentalism • Rachel Carson and DDT • Fossil fuels and chemicals threatening global warming. • Earth Day – April 22, 1970 • Rights of nature
Oil rose from $3 to $34 a barrel (1973-1979) • Rationing for Gasoline • Dept. of Energy created • Restrictions on Fuel
Nixon’s Southern Strategy • 68 election • Close race • Nixon appeals to Southern Voters • Vetoes Civil Rights Bills • Opposed Busing • Appoint Southern to supreme court. • Slow Desegregation in the South
Nixon Visits China Mmmm, tasty • Détente- effort to relieve tension between the U.S. and China & Soviet Union. • China & U.S. agree to make strides for peace. Nixon visit China
Nixon visits USSR. • 1st U.S. president to visit since WWII. • Moscow Summit • SALT(Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) • Limit Nuclear Arms • Exchange scientific information
Watergate Break in 1972 • Tapes • Missing 18 ½ min. • Nixon refused to give up tapes • Executive privilege • Threaten national security • Supreme Court orders Nixon to release tapes • Tapes revealed Nixon ordered CIA to stop FBI investigation • Vice President Agnew • Resigns, he had taken bribes. • Gerald Ford appointed new vice President • Nixon resigns before he is impeached. • Break-in • looking for campaign info from the democratic party headquarters. • Burglars caught • News reports reveal one of the burglars was ex-CIA. • Rumors of Whitehouse involvement • Nixon • Did not order break-in • Did order the cover up
Economic Crisis • US dependent on Foreign oil. • OPEC placed embargo on nations that supported Israel (US supports Israel) • U.S. suffered fuel shortages and high gas prices. • Rising prices + economic stagnation (unemployment, low wages) + STAGFLATION Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
1972 Munich Olympics • 11 Israeli Athletes killed by terrorist organization “Black September” • Watch the link below • 1972 Munich Massacre
President Gerald Ford “Our long national nightmare is over.” • Ford pardons Nixon.
Election of 1976 • Pres. Ford pardoned Nixon • Approval rating dropped • Carter promised to • Restore morality & honesty to govt. • Welfare reform • National Medicare
“I will never lie to you.”-- President Jimmy Carter • An ineffective president. • Micromanaged affairs • Played the outsider and alienated potential insider allies. • Economic problems too big.
Carter 77-81 • Returned the Panama Canal to Panama • Camp David Accords • Peace treaty between warring Egypt & Israel. • U.S. diplomatic relations w/ China • Dept. of Energy • SALT II with USSR
Loss of International Influence • Fall of Saigon, 1975 • Communist N. Vietnam overthrows Democratic S. Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City) • Crumbling relations between U.S. and Soviet Union • Soviet Union supports revolutions in Africa and invades Afghanistan in 1979.
Iranian Revolution • Argo Intro
Iranian Revolution 1979 • overthrow of Iran's monarchy and the establishment of an Islamic Republic. Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was replaced by the cleric Ayatollah Khomeini.
Iranian Hostage Crisis 53 Americans are taken hostage from the U.S. embassy in Iran in 1979. Failed U.S. helicopter rescue mission reinforces sense of helplessness.
Television • Television • Took more risks • Challenged the status quo. • Social issues • Criticized government • Mary Tyler Moore • Single professional working woman • All in the Family • Racism • Ignorant bigotry • Watch the clip below…. • Listen to what Archie Bunker says about the energy crisis vs. technology • Archie vs Democrats How did the Mary Tyler Moore show break the stereotype of Women. Mary Tyler Moore
Archie Bunker on Gun Control Watch the link below • Archie on Gun Control
70’s Movies • Revival in Movies • Distraction from bad economy • Source of entertainment • New technology • Sound FX • Visual FX
“Miracle on Ice” • USA v. USSR • 1980 Lake Placid Olympics • Morale low in nation • One of the biggest upsets in sports history • Helped lift America from a decade of gloom and despair, reviving patriotism and nationalism • Miracle on Ice
Voter Revolt • Americans seething with frustration at elected leaders and the political system. • With economic troubles and international humiliation, Carter defeated in 1980 election.
New Right $ • Coalition of • Evangelicals • Catholics • Conservatives • Corporate leaders • Comprised to fight against • Business Regulation • Policies that favored • Minorities • Homosexuals • Welfare recipients • Feminist
1980 Presidential Election Ronald Reagan- (R) Jimmy Carter- (D)
Ronald Reagan • Path to White House • College baseball announcer • Motivational speaker • Actor • President Screen actors guild • Governor of Cali
“Are you better off than you were four years ago?” • This one question days before the election turned the undecided voters to Reagan! • Reagan
Republicans won control of the United States Senate for the first time in 28 years Republicans won control of the United States Senate for the first time in 28 years