The French and Indian War (1754-1763) Beginning of Independence
The French and Indian War • Conflict between French and English over dominance in Europe in late 1600s and 1700s spilled over into America • In 1740 a common interest in Ohio River Valley led to tensions between French and British • Both sides built forts to claim territory
Battle over the Ohio River Valley The French had set up trading posts and forts in Canada and the Ohio River Valley. American Colonists saw them as a threat to westward expansion
The French and Indian War • In 1754 George Washington was asked to intervene for the British and expel the French • Washington’s troops defeated a small group of French but had to surrender when the French counterattacked (Fort Necessity) • The British suggested that the American colonies form an alliance with the Iroquois.
Albany Conference • During a meeting called the Albany Conference between the colonists and Iroquois, the Iroquois agreed to remain neutral • The conference issued the Albany Plan of Union – the first suggestion that the colonies unite to form a federal government.
The French and Indian War • In 1755 British commander in chief, General Edward Braddock, appointed George Washington to serve as his aide. • Braddock and his troops were ambushed by the French and Indians and Braddock was killed. • Washington’s leadership saved the British from complete disaster.
French and Indian War (1754-1763) • In 1756 fighting between Britain and France spread to Europe and became known as the Seven Years’ War. • Britain’s allies fought the French in Europe which allowed most of Britain’s forces to be sent to North America and India. • The turning point of the war in North America occurred with a British victory at Quebec.
French and Indian War (1754-1763) • The Treaty of Paris 1763 finally ended the war. • For the most part, French power in North America was eliminated. • The British now controlled Canada, the Great Lakes country, the Ohio River valley and Florida. • The Mississippi River became the boundary between the British and the Spanish claims in North America.
The End of the War • France Cedes (gives up) all its colonies in North America
The Colonies Grow Discontented • The British victory caused an enormous British debt • Britain looked to its colonies to help pay for the war • In the spring of 1763, Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa people, united several Native American groups, including the Ottawa, Delaware, Shawnee, and Seneca peoples, to go to war against the British.
The Colonies Grow Discontented • They attacked forts and towns along the frontier • The British government did not want to pay for another war, so it issued the Royal Proclamationof 1763 that limited western settlement. • Colonists were not allowed to settle in certain areas without the government’s permission. • Could not settle west of the Appalachian mountains. • The proclamation angered many farmers and land speculators
Proclamation of 1763 • Imaginary line created at Appalachian Mts. To keep settlers from moving west • Great Britain did not want to pay for soldiers to protect them
The Colonies Grow Discontented • In an effort to reduce Britain’s debt and pay for the British troops in North America, George Grenville, the British Prime Minister, implemented new tax policies in the colonies • Merchants smuggled goods in and out of America to avoid customs duties, or taxes paid on imports and exports. • Smugglers were sent before a naval court.
The Colonies Grow Discontented • Grenville also introduced the Sugar Act in the colonies • This act changed tax rates for raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign colonies • The act placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo • Merchants felt the Sugar Act hurt trade and argued that it violated traditional English rights
The Colonies Grow Discontented • The Colonists argued that they were being taxed without representation in Parliament • To slow inflation– a rise in prices of goods and services because money has lost its value – Parliament passed the Currency Act of 1764. • This banned the use of paper money in the colonies.
The Stamp Act Crisis • To raise more money to pay for the war, Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 • use of stamped paper for legal documents, newspapers and playing cards. The stamp was to be proof that the tax had been paid. • The stamp tax was the first direct tax Britain had ever placed on the colonists. • The Quartering Act, passed in 1765, forced the colonists to provide places to stay for British troops in the colonies
The Stamp Act Crisis • By the summer of 1765, mass meetings and demonstrations against the stamp tax took place • When the Stamp Act took effect, the colonists ignored it • Colonial merchants signed a nonimportationagreement, agreeing not to buy any British goods (boycott) until the Stamp Act was repealed
The Stamp Act Crisis • The protests led to the Stamp Act being repealed in 1766 • Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, which gave them the power to make laws for the colonies. (an effort to assert its control)
The Stamp Act Crisis • What did the Stamp Act and the Quartering Act do? • To raise more money to pay for the war, Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765. Stamps were required on most printed materials. The Quartering Act, passed by Parliament in 1765, forced the colonists to pay more for their own defense by providing places to stay for British troops in the colonies.
The Townshend Acts • Charles Townshend introduced a set of regulations and taxes called the Townshend Acts. • It legalized the use of general search warrants called writs of assistance. • It gave British officials the right to seize property without following due process
The Townshend Acts • Virginia’s House of Burgesses passed the Virginia Resolves, stating that only the House had the right to tax Virginians. • Britain ordered that the House of Burgesses be dissolved. • Leaders of the House of Burgesses called a convention and passed a nonimportation law blocking the sale of British goods in Virginia
Sons of Liberty • In Boston, Samuel Adams, the cousin of John Adams, started a group of patriots known as the Sons of Liberty. • The organization grew quickly throughout the colonies. • The Sons of Liberty organized outdoor meetings and demonstrations. They also intimidated stamp distributors.
Boston Massacre • On March 5, 1770, British troops fired into a crowd of colonists in Boston. • A man of African and Native American descent was the first colonist to die in what became known as the Boston Massacre. • This man’s name was Crispus Attucks • The British were viewed as tyrants who were killing people standing up for their rights.
Boston Massacre • In response, Britain repealed the Townshend Acts, leaving only one tax – on tea – to uphold its right to tax the colonies.
Checking for Understanding • Customs duty B. Writ of assistance C. Nonimportation agreement D. inflation __1. the loss of value of money __2. a tax on imports and exports __3. a search warrant enabling customs officers to enter any location to look for evidence of smuggling __4. a pledge by merchants not to buy imported goods from a particular source
Massachusetts Defies Britain • Thomas Jefferson thought each colony should create a committee of correspondence to communicate with other colonies about British activities. • This helped unify the colonies and coordinate plans for British resistance.
Massachusetts Defies Britain • England’s new prime minister, Lord North, helped the British East India Company, which was almost bankrupt • To assist the company with tea sales, Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773, which made East India’s tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea • American merchants feared this monopoly on the American tea trade was the first step by the British to force them out of business.
Massachusetts Defies Britain • In December 1773, tea ships from the East India Company arrived in Boston Harbor • Colonists boarded the ship and dumped the tea into the harbor • This became known as the Boston Tea Party • The Boston Tea Party led to the British passing four new laws called the Coercive Acts.
Massachusetts Defies Britain • These acts were an attempt to stop colonial challenges of British authority • The Coercive Acts violated several English rights, including the right to trial by a jury of one’s peers and the right not to have troops quartered in one’s home • The Quebec Act gave more territory to Quebec and stated that a governor and council appointed by the king would run Quebec.
Massachusetts Defies Britain • The Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act became known as the Intolerable Acts. • The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1774. • The congress wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which expressed loyalty to the king but condemned the Coercive Acts and announced that the colonies were forming a nonimportation association
The Intolerable Acts • Response to Tea Party • New Quartering Act • Closed Boston Harbor • Colonial Govt. of Massachusetts is shut down
How did colonists react to British oppression? • Non-Importation Agreements- Colonists agreed to stop importing and buying British goods • Committee of Correspondence- groups formed to informed colonists about British violations • Violence, protests, propaganda
Causes and Effects of Tensions with Britain Causes Effects Colonists protest that their rights have been violated Nine colonies hold Stamp Act Congress Colonists boycott British goods Sons and Daughters of Liberty formed Tea dumped into Boston Harbor during the “Boston Tea Party” Twelve colonies attend the Continental Congress. • 1764, Sugar Act • 1765, Stamp Act • 1767, Townshend Acts • 1773, Tea Act • 1774, Coercive Acts
The Revolution Begins • The town of Concord created a special unit of minutemen, trained and ready to fight the British at a minute’s warning. • The American Revolution was not just a war between Americans and British but a war between Loyalists and Patriots. • Americans called Loyalists, or Tories, remained loyal to the king and felt British laws should be upheld.
The Revolution Begins • The group included government officials, prominent merchants, landowners, and a few farmers. • The Patriots, or Whigs, thought the British were tyrants. • Patriots included artisans, farmers, merchants, planters, lawyers, and urban workers.
The Revolution Begins • There was a group of Americans in the middle who did not support either side and who would support whomever won. • On April 18, 1775, the British set out to seize the militia’s supply depot at Concord • To get there, they had to pass through Lexington • Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to Lexington to warn the people that the British were coming.
The Revolution Begins • Dr. Samuel Prescott went on to warn the people of Concord • In Lexington, 70 minutemen were waiting for the British. • The British killed 8 and wounded 10 • In Concord the British found 400 minutemen waiting for them. • The minutemen forced the British to retreat
The Revolution Begins • After the battles of Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to address the issue of defense • The Congress voted to adopt the militia army around Boston and name it the Continental Army • On June 15, 1775, Congress appointed GeorgeWashingtonto head the Continental Army
The Revolution Begins • The Battle at Bunker Hill resulted in turning back two British advances (Breeds Hill) • An American officer said “do not shoot till you see the whites of their eyes.” • The colonial militia only retreated due to a lack of ammunition • It was a huge boost to American confidence that untrained colonials stood up to the feared British army • The British were trapped in Boston surrounded by militia.
Causes and Effects Causes Effects United States declares independence A long war with Great Britain World recognition of American independence • Colonists’ tradition of self-government • Americans’ sense of a separate identity from Britain • Proclamation of 1763 • British policies toward the colonies after 1763