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Material Selection. Function dictates the choice of material and shape. Shape restricts the choice of material and process. Function. Material. Shape. Process. Process is influenced by material. Process interacts with shape.

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material selection
Material Selection

Function dictates the choice of material and shape.

Shape restricts the choice of material and process.

Function

Material

Shape

Process

Process is influenced by material

Process interacts with shape.

Material selection and process cannot be separated from the shape and the function of the product, two way interaction.

SJSU, ME dept.

engineering materials

Plastics

Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Thermoplastics

Thermosets

Elastomers

Aluminum

Copper

Zinc

Titanium

Tungsten

Steel

Stainless steel

Die & tool steel

Cast iron

Acrylic

Nylon

ABS

Polyethylene

Polycarbonate

PVC

Phenolic

Polymide

Epoxies

Polyester

Rubber

Polyurethane

Silicone

Engineering Materials

Materials

Metals

SJSU, ME dept.

engineering materials1

Ceramics

Glass

Composites

Carbides

Nitrides

Graphite

Diamond

Glasses

Glass ceramics

Reinforced plastics

Metal-Matrix

Ceramic-Matrix

Laminates

Engineering Materials

Materials

Metals

Plastics

SJSU, ME dept.

most commonly used materials
Most Commonly Used Materials

The following 25 materials are the most commonly used materials in the design of mechanical products; in themselves they represent the broad range of other materials.

Steel and Cast Iron

  • 1020 (plain carbon steel, hot-rolled or cold-drawn)
  • 1040 (plain carbon steel, hot-rolled or cold-drawn)
  • 4140 (heat-treated alloy steel, chromium-molybdenum)
  • 4340 (heat-treated alloy steel, nickel-chromium-molybdenum)
  • S30400 (stainless steel)
  • S316 (stainless steel)
  • O1 (tool steel)
  • ASTM20-60 (gray cast iron)

SJSU, ME dept.

most commonly used materials1

Aluminum and Copper Alloys

  • 2024 (aluminum, O, T3, T4 or T6)
  • 3003 (aluminum, H12 or H16)
  • 6061 (aluminum, T6)
  • 7075 (aluminum, T6)
  • C268 (copper)

Other metals

  • Titanium 6-4
  • AZ63A (magnesium)
Most Commonly Used Materials

SJSU, ME dept.

most commonly used materials2

Ceramics

  • Alumina
  • Graphite

Composite materials

  • Douglas fir
  • Fiberglass
  • Graphite/epoxy
Most Commonly Used Materials

Plastics

  • ABS
  • Polycarbonate
  • Nylon 6/6
  • Polypropylene
  • Polystyrene

SJSU, ME dept.

application of most commonly used materials
Application of Most Commonly Used Materials

Component

Material

SJSU, ME dept.

application of most commonly used materials1
Application of Most Commonly Used Materials

Component

Material

SJSU, ME dept.

properties of most commonly used materials
Properties of Most Commonly Used Materials

Ultimate Strength in tension

SJSU, ME dept.

properties of most commonly used materials1
Properties of Most Commonly used Materials

Yield strength

SJSU, ME dept.

properties of most commonly used materials2
Properties of Most Commonly used Materials

Fatigue endurance limit (strength under cyclic loading)

SJSU, ME dept.

example materials for table legs
Example – Materials for table legs

Luigi Tavolino, furniture designer, conceives of a lightweight table of daring simplicity: a flat sheet of toughened glass supported on slender, unbraced, cylindrical legs. The legs must be solid and as light as possible (to make the table easier to move). They must support the table top and whatever is placed upon it without buckling.What materials could one recommend.

SJSU, ME dept.

example materials for table legs1

Objective function

Example – Materials for table legs

The Model

The leg is a slender column of density ρ and modulus E. The load P and its length l are determined by design (fixed). The radius r of the leg is a variable. We wish to minimize the mass m of the leg.

SJSU, ME dept.

example materials for table legs2

=

Material properties

The weight is minimized by selecting the subset of materials with the greatest value of the material index.

Example – Materials for table legs

The constraint is that the legs must support a design load without buckling.

Euler’s buckling equation

where I = π r4/4

Solving for the free variable , r, and substituting it into the equation for m gives,

SJSU, ME dept.

example materials for table legs3

The thinnest leg is that made of the material with the largest value of the material index.

Two material indices,

To minimize the weight, both have to be maximize.

Example – Materials for table legs

Solving the Euler’s formula for r, gives an equation for the thinnest leg which will not buckle:

Material properties

SJSU, ME dept.

modulus of elasticity e vs density charts
Modulus of Elasticity (E) vs. Density (ρ) Charts

Constant guidelines

SJSU, ME dept.