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On the direct Searching for Cold Dark Matter -. Exploiting the signatures of the WIMP interaction J.D. Vergados University of Ioannina, Greece. EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF DARK MATTER. Gravitational effects around galaxies Cosmological Observations.

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On the direct searching for cold dark matter

On the direct Searching for Cold Dark Matter-

Exploiting the signatures of the WIMP interaction

J.D. Vergados

University of Ioannina, Greece

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Evidence for the existence of dark matter
EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF DARK MATTER

  • Gravitational effects around galaxies

  • Cosmological Observations

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


I the rotational velocities 2 does not fall as 1 r outside the galaxies
I. The Rotational Velocities (υ2 does not fall as 1/r outside the galaxies)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Cosmological constraints in the plane
Cosmological Constraints in the (Ω,Λ) Plane

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Slicing the pie of the cosmos wmap3 cdm 0 24 0 02 0 72 0 04 b 0 04 2 0 0 03 wmap1 as follows
Slicing the Pie of the CosmosWMAP3:ΩCDM =0.24±0.02,ΩΛ=0.72±0.04, Ωb =0.042±0.003WMAP1: As follows:

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


What is the nature of dark matter
What is the nature of dark matter?

It is not known. However:

  • It possesses gravitational interactions (from the rotation curves)

  • No other long range interaction is allowed. Otherwise it would have formed “atoms” and , hence, stars etc. So

    It iselectrically neutral

  • It does not interact strongly(if it did, it should have already been detected)

  • It may (hopefully) posses some very weak interaction

    This will depend on the assumed theory

  • Such an interaction may be exploited for its direct detection

  • The smallness of the strength of such an interaction makes its direct detection extremely difficult.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Dark matter candidates
DARK MATTER CANDIDATES

  • The axion:10-6 eV<ma <10-3 eV

  • The neutrino: It is not dominant. It is not cold, not CDM.

  • Supersymmetric particles.

    Three possibilities:

    i) s-νετρίνο: Excluded on the basis of results of underground experiments and accelerator experiments(LEP)

    ii) Gravitino: Not directly detectable

    iii) Αxino: Not directly detectable

    iv)AMajorana fermion, the neutralino orLSP

    (The lightest supersymmetric particle): A linear

    combination of the2 neutral gauginos and the 2

    neutral Higgsinos. MOST FAVORITE CANDIDATE!

  • Particles from theories in extra dimensions (Kaluza-Klein WIMPS)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


A susy models with r parity the neutralino
A. SUSY MODELS WITH R-PARITY: The neutralino χ

  • Standard model particles have R-parity=1

  • All SUSY particles have R-parity -1

  • Lightest SUSY particle absolutely stable

  • A linear combination of the 4 neutral fermions (two gauginos and two Higgsinos) i.e.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


A1 susy models the neutralino z exchange axial current
A1. SUSY MODELS: The neutralino(Z-exchange  Axial current)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


A2 susy models the neutralino squark exchange axial scalar
A2. SUSY MODELS: The neutralino(squark-exchange Axial +scalar)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


A3 susy models the neutralino higgs exchange scalar coherent cross section
A3. SUSY MODELS: The neutralino(Higgs-exchangeScalar coherent cross section)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B universal extra dimension theories
B. Universal Extra Dimension Theories

  • Kaluza-Klein Theories: A tower of new particles

  • Postulate a discreet symmetry: K-K parity

  • The even modes (ordinaryparticles) have K-K parity +1

  • The odd modes (exotic) have K-K parity -1

  • The lightest odd mode is absolutely stable

  • The interactions of the new particles are the same with those of SM

  • Only the particle’s mass is unknown parameter

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter
B1 Kaluza-Klein theoriesThe lightest particle is the brother of the B boson, the B(1).K-K quark exchange.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B1 k k theories wimp b 1 k k q 1 exchange with moustakides and oikonomou
B1 K-K theories WIMP: B(1). K-K q(1) exchange. (with Moustakides and Oikonomou)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B1 kaluza klein theories cont the lightest particle is the b 1 higgs exchange
B1. Kaluza-Klein theories (cont.)The lightest particle is the B(1).Higgs-Exchange.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B1 kaluza klein theories cont wimp is the b 1 higgs exchange
B1. Kaluza-Klein theories (cont.)WIMP is the B(1).Higgs-Exchange.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B1 kaluza klein theories cont wimp is the b 1 0 05 m h invisible p on the left n on the right
B1. Kaluza-Klein theories (cont.)WIMP is the B(1). Δ=0.05. mh invisibleσp on the left, σn on the right.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B1 kaluza klein theories cont wimp is the b 1 0 8 m h 100 200 gev p on the left n on the right
B1. Kaluza-Klein theories (cont.)WIMP is the B(1). Δ=0.8mh 100-200 GeVσp on the left, σn on the right.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter
B2. Kaluza-Klein theories The lightest particle is the brother of neutrino, the ν(1).Ζ-Exchange & Higgs Exchange.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B 2 wimp is the 1 exchange dominates
B2 WIMP is the ν(1).Ζ-Exchange Dominates.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B 2 kaluza klein theories wimp is the 1 1 exchange
B2. Kaluza-Klein theories WIMP is the ν(1).Ζ(1) -Exchange

  • ν(1)->νconversion!

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter
B2.ν(1)->νconversionExotic! Energy transfer: About half the mass of the WIMP!Could observations have missed it?

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Nuclear recoil after the lsp nucleus collision elastic for susy wimps
Nuclear Recoil after the LSP-nucleus collision ( Elastic for SUSY WIMPS)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conversion of the energy of the recoiling nucleus into detectable form light heat ionization etc
Conversion of the energy of the recoiling nucleus into detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • The neutralino (LSP) is non relativistic.

  • With few exceptions, it cannot excite the nucleus. It only scatters off elastically:

  • Measuring the energy of the recoiling nucleus is extremely hard:

    -Low event rate (much less than 30 per Kg of target per year are expected).

    -Bothersome backgrounds (the signal is not very characteristic).

    -Threshold effects.

    -Quenching factors.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Novel approaches exploitation of other signatures of the reaction
Novel approaches detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.): Exploitation ofother signatures of the reaction

  • The modulation effect: The seasonal dependence of the rate due to the motion of the Earth.

  • The excitationof the nucleus (in some rare cases that this is realistic) anddetection of the subsequently emitted de-excitation γ rays.

  • Asymmetry measurements in directional experiments (the direction of the recoilingnucleus must also be measured).

  • Detection of other particles (electrons, X-rays), produced during the LSP-nucleus collision

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The susy input
The SUSY INPUT detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • Allowed parameter space: Universality at GUT scale: - One mass m0for the scalars-One mass m1/2 for the fermions -Tanβ, the ratio of vacuum expectation values of the

    Higss Hu ,Hd ,i.e. <vu>/ <vd> -The cubic coupling A0 (or mt) -The sign of μ, in μHu Hd

  • These parameters are constrained via the renormalization group equations from the observable low energy quantities (all related to the above five parameters).

  • (see, e.g.,: Ellis, Arnowitt, Nath, Bottino, Lazarides and collaborators)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


From the quark level to the nucleon level coherent
From the quark level detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)to the nucleon level (coherent)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The differential cross section at the nuclear level
The Differential cross section at the nuclear level. detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • υ is the neutralino velocity and u stands essentially for the energy transfer Q:

  • u=Q/Q0 , Q0=40A-4/3MeV

  • F(u): The nuclear form factor

  • F11 (u):The isovector spin response function

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Expressions for the nuclear cross section continued
Expressions for the nuclear cross section (continued) detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

With

  • ΣS=σps(μr/mp)2A2 (scalar interaction)

  • σps is the scalar proton-LSP cross section

  • μr isthe LSP-nucleus reduced mass

  • A is the nuclear mass

  • ΣSpin is the expression for the spin induced

    cross section (to be discussed later).

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Lsp velocity distributions
LSP Velocity Distributions detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • Conventional: Isothermal models

  • (1) Maxwell-Boltzmann (symmetric or axially symmetric) with characteristic velocity equal to the sun’s velocity around the galaxy, v0 =220 km/s, and escape velocity

    vesc =2.84v0 put in by hand.

  • (2)Modification of M-B characteristic velocity: nv0 , n>>1

    (Tetradis and JDV )

  • Adiabatic models employingEddington’s theory:

    ρ(r)Φ(r) f(r,v) (JDV-Owen)

  • Non-thermal models:

  • Caustic rings (Sikivie , JDV), wimps in bound orbits etc

  • Sgr Dwarf galaxy, anisotropic flux, (Green & Spooner)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The event rate for the coherent mode
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)event ratefor the coherent mode

  • Can be cast in the form:

  • Where:

    ρ(0):the local neutralino density≈0.3 GeV/cm3.

    σSp,χ: the neutralino-nucleon cross section. It can be extracted from

    the data once fcoh (A,mχ), which will be plotted below, is known.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The factor f coh a m for a 127 i vs the lsp mass the dashed for threshold 10kev
The factor detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)fcoh(A,mχ) for A=127 (I) vs the LSP mass(The dashed for threshold 10keV)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The factor f coh a m for a 19 f the dashed for threshold 10kev
The factor detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)fcoh(A,mχ) for A=19 (F)(The Dashed for threshold 10keV)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Current limits on coherent proton cross section astro ph 0509259
Current Limits on coherent proton cross section detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.) (astro-ph/0509259)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The modulation effect v june 235 15 250km s v dec 235 15 220km s
THE MODULATION EFFECT detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)vJune=235+15=250km/svDec=235-15=220km/s

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The modulation effect continued
THE detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)MODULATION EFFECT*(continued)

  • α=phase of the Earth

    (α=0 around June 3nd)

  • γ=π/3 is the angle between the axis of galaχy and the axis of the ecliptic.

  • h=modulation amplitude.

  • R0 =average rate.

  • * with N. Tetradis (calculations with non standard M-B)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The modulation amplitude h for 127 i q th 0 isothermal model m b on the left n 1 on the right n 3
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Modulation Amplitudeh for 127IQth=0, Isothermal model (M-B),On theleft n=1, on the right n=3

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Modulation Amplitudeh for 127IQth=10keV, Isothermal model (M-B),On theleft n=1, on the right n=3

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The modulation amplitude h for 127 i q th 0 thick q th 5kev fine q th 10 dash eddington theory
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Modulation Amplitudeh for 127IQth=0thick, Qth=5keVfine Qth=10dash; Eddington Theory

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

BR for transitions to the detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)first excited stateat 50 keV for Ivs LSP mass (Ejiri; Quentin, Strottman and JDV) Note: quenching of recoil ignored

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Relative (with respect to recoil) rate of ionization per electron vs: a) Ethreshold for mχ =100Gev (left)and b) mχ for Ethreshold = 0.2 keV (right)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


But there are z electrons in an atom
But, there are detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Z electrons in an atom!

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Detection of hard x rays
Detection of detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)hard X-rays

  • After the ionization there is a probability for a K or L hole

  • This hole de-excites via emitting X-rays or Auger electrons.

  • Indicating with bnℓthe fluorecence ratio (determined experimentally)

  • the fraction of X-rays per recoil is:

    σX(nℓ) /σr = bnl(σnℓ/σr) with σnℓ/σr the relative

    ionization rate to be discussed next

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Relative rate for inner electron hole production in the case of 132 xe
Relative rate for detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)inner electron hole productionin the case of 132Xe.

  • nℓεnℓ(keV) (σnℓ/σr)L (σnℓ/σr)M (σnℓ/σr)H

  • is34.560.0340.2210.255

  • 2s 5.45 1.2111.4611.463

  • 2p 4.89 3.796 4.506 4.513

  • WIMP masses indicated by subscript:

    L30GeV, M100GeV, H300GeV

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The k xray rates in wimp interactions in 132 xe for masses l 30gev m 100gev h 300gev
The K Xray rates in WIMP interactions in detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)132 Xe for masses: L30GeV, M100GeV, H300GeV

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions experimental ambitions for recoils
Conclusions: detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.) Experimental ambitions for Recoils

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions a k k wimps
CONCLUSIONS A: K-K WIMPS detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • Theoretical advantages: Only the masses are unknown parameters

  • Experimental advantages: The WIMP energy is an order of magnitude bigger

    The energy transfer to the nucleus is in the MeV region. WIMPS need not be detected via the hard recoil measurements. One can excite the nucleus

  • Limits K-K Nucleon cross sectionscan be extracted fromcurrent limits via:

  • σ(K-K)(coh) ≈10(-6)pb[m(K-K)/200GeV](1/2)

  • σ(K-K)(spin) ≈10(-2)pb[m(K-K)/200GeV](1/2)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions susy wimps standard rates theory
CONCLUSIONS- SUSY WIMPS detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Standard Rates (theory)

  • Most of the uncertainties come the fact that the allowed SUSY parameter space has not been sufficiently sharpened.

  • The other uncertainties (nuclear form factor, structure of the nucleon, quenching factor, energy threshold) could affect the results by an order of magnitude.

  • Most of the parameter space yields undetectable rates.

  • The coherent contribution due to the scalar interaction is the most dominant.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions modulation theory
CONCLUSIONS-Modulation (theory) detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • The modulation amplitude h is small less than 2% and depends on the LSP mass.

  • It crucially depends on the velocity distribution

  • Its sign is also uncertain for intermediate and heavy nuclei.

  • It may increase as the energy cut off remains big (as in the DAMA experiment), but at the expense of the number of counts. The DAMA experiment maybe consistent with the other experiments, if the spin interaction dominates.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions transitions to excited states
CONCLUSIONS detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)-Transitions to excited states

  • For neutralino transitions to excited states are possible in few odd A nuclei*.

  • When allowed, are kinematically suppressed

  • The branching ratio depends on the structure of the nucleus and the LSP mass

  • In the case of Iodine, a popular target for recoils, it can be as high as 7% for LSP mass higher than 200 GeV

  • * For K-K WIMPS it is quite easy

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions electron production during lsp nucleus collisions
CONCLUSIONS detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.): Electron production during LSP-nucleus collisions

  • During the neutralino-nucleus collisions, electrons may be kicked off the atom

  • Electrons can be identified easier than nuclear recoils (Low threshold ~0.25keV TPC detectors)

  • The branching ratio for this process depends on the threshold energies and the LSP mass.

  • For a threshold energy of 0.25 keV the ionization event rate in the case of a heavy target can exceed the rate for recoils by an order of 10.

  • Detection of hard X-rays also seams feasible

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

  • THE END detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Ii cosmological evidence for dark matter
II: Cosmological Evidence detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.) for dark matter

The 3 main reasons for the Big Bang Scenario:

  • The receding of Galaxies (red shift) (Hubble 1929)

  • The Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR –Penzias and Wilson 1964)

  • The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN, 1946)

    All bear a signature of dark matter

    (BBN also gave the first argument for CMBR, but nobody paid any attention)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Anisotropy in the cmbr cont
Anisotropy in the CMBR (cont.) detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Iic light curves d l vs red shift z generalization of hubble s law to large distances
IIc: Light curves : detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)dL vs red shift z (Generalization of Hubble’s Law to Large Distances)

  • Upper continuous

  • Middle continuous

  • Lower continuous

  • Dashed-

    Non accelerating

    universe

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B1 kaluza klein theories wimp b 1 k k q 1 exchange the axial current
B1 Kaluza-Klein theories detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)WIMP:B(1)K-K q(1)exchange-The axial current.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


B 2 wimp is the 1 continued exchange dominates
B detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)2 WIMP isthe ν(1).(continued)Ζ-Exchange Dominates.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Spin contribution axial current
Spin Contribution detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.) Axial Current

  • Going from quark to the nucleon level for the isovector component is standard (as in weak interactions): f1A (q)  f1A =gAf1A (q) , gA =1.24

  • For the isoscalar this is not trivial. The naïve quark model fails badly (the proton spin crisis) f0A (q)  f0A =g0Af0A (q) , g0A=0.1

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

The relative differential Rate, detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)(dRe/dTe )/Rrecoil, vs the electron energyT for electron production in LSP-nucleus (Moustakidis, Ejiri, JDV).

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Detection of hard x rays events relative to recoil continued
Detection of detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)hard X-rays (events relative to recoil) (continued)

  • The interesting quantity is:

  • (σK (Kij)/σr)=(σ1s/σr)b1s B(Kij)

  • Where:

  • bnℓ=Fluorecence ratio, Kij =K-ij branch

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions directional rates
CONCLUSIONS detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)-Directional Rates

  • Good signatures, but the experiments are hard (the DRIFT experiment cannot tell the sense of direction of recoil)

  • Large asymmetries are predicted

  • The rates are suppressed by a factor κ/2π, κ<0.6

  • For a given LSP velocity distribution, κ depends on the direction of observation

  • In the most favored direction κ is approximately 0.6

  • In the plane perpendicular to the sun’s velocity κ is approximately equal to 0.2

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Conclusions modulation in directional experiments
CONCLUSIONS detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)- Modulation in Directional Experiments

  • The Directional rates also exhibit modulation

  • In the most favored direction of observation, opposite to the sun’s motion, the modulation is now twice as large. (Maximum in June, Minimum in December)

  • In the plane perpendicular to the sun’s motion the modulation is much larger. The difference between the maximum and the minimum can be as high as 50%. It also shows a direction characteristic pattern (for observation directions on the galactic plane the maximum may occur in September or March, while normal behavior for directions perpendicular to the galaxy)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


A typical scatter plot universal set of parameters ceredeno gabrielli gomez and munoz
A typical Scatter Plot ( detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Universal set of parameters) (Ceredeno, Gabrielli, Gomez and Munoz)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


A scatter plot non universal ceredeno gabrielli gomez and munoz
A Scatter Plot ( detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)Non Universal) (Ceredeno, Gabrielli, Gomez and Munoz)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The event rate due to the spin
The event rate due to the spin detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • Wheref0A=ap+an(isoscalar) and f1A=ap-an(isovector) couplings at the nucleon level and Ω0(0), Ω1(0)the corresponding static spin matrix elements

  • The event rate is cast in the form:

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The factor f spin a m for a 127 i the dashed for threshold 10kev
The factor detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)fspin(A,mχ) for A=127 (I)(The Dashed for threshold 10keV)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The factor f spin a m for a 19 f the dashed for threshold 10kev
The factor detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)fspin(A,mχ) for A=19 (F)(The Dashed for threshold 10keV)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)constrained amplitude plane(ap,χ,an,χ) for theΑ=127 system(arbitrary units), when they are relatively real.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The constrained a p a n plane relative phase of the amplitudes 6 3 and 2
The constrained (a detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)p,χ,an,χ) plane: relative phase of the amplitudes δ=π/6 (-), δ=π/3 (-)and δ=π/2 (-)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)constrained(σp,χ,σn,χ) plane for the Α=127 system (arbitrary units). Under the curve on the left, if the amplitudes have the same sign and between the curves on the right for opposite sign.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The constrained p n plane relative phase of amplitudes 6 3 and 2
The constrained ( detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)σp,χ,σn,χ)plane: relative phase of amplitudes δ=π/6 (-), δ=π/3 (-)and δ=π/2 (-)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The directional event rate
The directional event rate detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • The event rate in directional experiments is:

    Rdir=(κ/2π)R0[1+cos(α-αmπ)]

  • R0is the average usual (non-dir) rate

  • α the phase of the Earth (as usual)

  • α m is the shift in the phase of the Earth (it depends on μrand the direction of observation)

  • κ/2π is the reduction factor (it depends on μrand the direction of observation)

  • κ and αm depend only slightly on SUSY

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The event rate vs the polar angle a 19 left a 127 right for m 100 gev and m b distribution
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)event rate vs the polar angle(A=19, left) , (A=127, right) for mχ=100 GeV and M-B distribution

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The parameter vs the lsp mass perpendicular to the sun s velocity left and opposite to it right
The parameter detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)κ vs the LSP mass:perpendicular to the sun’s velocity (left) and opposite to it (right)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The modulation vs the lsp mass perpendicular to the sun s velocity left and opposite to it right
The detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)modulation vs the LSP mass:perpendicular to the sun’s velocity (left) and opposite to it (right)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006 detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)


Iia big bang nucleosynthesis bbn gamow 1946 bethe 1948
IIa:Big Bang Nucleosynthesis detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.) (BBN) (Gamow 1946 & Bethe (1948)

  • Hydrogen is dominant in the Universe

  • A fraction of only 25% is He and much less in the form of heavier elements (sensitive to n/p ratio)

  • Via nuclear fusion the primordial hydrogen is transformed into heavier elements

    +light(26.731MeV)

  • The stars, however, are too young to have formed so much He.

  • This much He must have been produced primordially, i.e. when the Universe was quite young (~3 min old) and its temperature as high as that in the star interiors.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The expanding universe big bang
The Expanding Universe (Big Bang) detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

IMPORTANT STEPS:

  • General Theory of Relativity (Einstein 1917)

    The Universe is finite with a finite past

  • The Receding galaxies (Hubble 1929, 1932)

  • The Big-bang theory (Gamow 1945)

  • The discovery of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, CMBR, (Penzias and Wilson, 1964)

  • The inflationary scenario (Guth 1990)

  • The Cosmic Candle (supernova Ia)

  • The discovery of anisotropies in CMBR (COBE 1992, WMAP 2003)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Hubble s law ha
Hubble’s Law: detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)υ=Ha

  • Classically or Isotropic and Homogeneous Universe:

    υ=Ha (υ=velocity, a=distance)

  • υ is measured from red shift

    (it appears in special as well as general theory of relativity)

  • 1+z=(λobs/λ)

    The largest z measured is: Z=5.6 (HDF-5730)

    λ=1216 (ultraviolet) becomes λ= 8025 (infrared)

  • The distance a is measured with “candles”

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Prototype cosmic candles
Prototype Cosmic Candles detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

L= Absolute Luminosity (emitted power)

Ι=Relative Luminosity

(Power per unit area of detector)

That is Knowledge ofLandMeasurement of Ι

Determine the “optical depth" D

Ldepends on the physics governing the emitting source.

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Supernovae ia
Supernovae Ia detectable form (light, heat, ionization etc.)

  • A Double Star, one of which is a white Dwarf

  • The white Dwarf is eating up the mass of the companion star

  • When its mass is reaching the Shandrasheckar limit

  • an explosion takes place

  • One knows that it is a supernova Ia from the light curve and the color type

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006



A white dwarf is eating up the mass of a red giant
A white Dwarf is eating up the mass of a red giant NASA

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The deepest picture of the sky 12 billion years ago almost protogalaxies
The deepest picture of the sky NASA(12 billion years ago! Almost protogalaxies)

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Experimental verification of ha hubble s law h 0 1 10 10 h 1 yr h 0 100h km s mpc 0 6 h 0 8
Experimental verification of NASA υ=HaHubble’s Law: (H0) -1= 1010h-1 yr;H0=100h (km/s/Mpc), 0.6<h<0.8

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Iib cosmic microwave background radiation cmbr
IIb: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) NASA

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006



The quenching factor
The Quenching Factor NASA

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Some experimental considerations
Some experimental considerations NASA

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


Empirical quenching factor
Empirical Quenching Factor NASA

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


The modulation amplitude h for i on the left zero energy cut off on the right a cut off of 10kev
The NASAModulation Amplitudeh for I On the left zero energy cut off. On the right a cut off of 10keV

HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


On the direct searching for cold dark matter

3 NASAHe-cross-section

For AX nucleus:

  • SI cross-section : SI(AX) SI(p)×A4

  • SD cross-section : SD(AX) SD(p)×A2

  • For 3He : SD SI only SD considered

  • (3He)  mr2 (J+1)/J (ap<Sp>+an<Sn>)2

    with 3He spin content: <Sp>=-0.05

    <Sn>=0.49

    scattering on the unpaired neutron

    HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


    On the direct searching for cold dark matter

    Projected exclusion curve NASA

    for scalar detectors

    2003 Edelweiss and

    CDMS projections

    HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


    On the direct searching for cold dark matter

    CRESST Saphire NASA

    ELEGANT V NaI

    UKDMC NaI

    NAIAD projection

    Projected exclusion curve for 3He detector

    Background

    = 0.01 day-1

    Energy

    threshold

    = 1 keV

    HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006


    Three years later sdss dr4 sloan digital sky survey data rlease 4
    Three years later! NASASDSS DR4:Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Rlease 4

    HEP2006 Ioannina 13/04/2006