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THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. BY: PETE YIM MICHAEL WATKINS TIM SHANAHAN STEPHEN MALLERS. MAIN FUNCTION OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. TO TRANSPORT: -NUTRIENTS -WATER -OXYGEN. DIAGRAM OF THE HEART. THE ENGINE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 60-100 BEATS A MINUTE

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THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


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    1. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM BY: PETE YIM MICHAEL WATKINS TIM SHANAHAN STEPHEN MALLERS

    2. MAIN FUNCTION OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • TO TRANSPORT: -NUTRIENTS -WATER -OXYGEN

    3. DIAGRAM OF THE HEART • THE ENGINE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • 60-100 BEATS A MINUTE • DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS: RIGHT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLELEFT ATRIUM LEFT VENTRICLE

    4. RIGHT ATRIUM & VENTRICLE • RIGHT SIDE OF HEART IS LOW PRESSURE SIDE. • RIGHT ATRIUM RECEIVES BLOOD FROM THE UPPER & LOWER BODY, AND THEN PUMPS IT TO THE RIGHT VENTRICLE. • RIGHT VENTRICLE PUMPS BLOOD RECEIVED FROM THE RIGHT ATRIUM TO THE LUNGS FOR REOXYGENATION.

    5. LEFT ATRIUM & VENTRICLE • RECEIVES BLOOD FROM THE LUNGS (OXYGENATED) & PUMPS TO LEFT VENTRICLE • LEFT VENTRICLE TAKES BLOOD RECEIVED FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE & PUMPS THROUGHOUT THE BODY

    6. BLOOD VESSELS • THREE TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS: -ARTERIES -VEINS -CAPILLARIES • INNER LAYER IS MADE OF ENDOTHELIAL CELLS THAT ALLOW BLOOD TO FLOW FREELY • INNER LAYER IS SURROUNDED WITH A SMOOTH MUSCLEN THAT IS USED FOR CONTRACTION OR EXPANSION WHICH HELPS CONTROL BODY TEMPERATURE • EXPANSION OCCURS IN INSTANCES SUCH AS EXCERCISING. THE BLOOD VESSELS EXPAND TO ALOOW THE BODY’S TEMPERATURE TO COOL. • CONTRACTION OCCURS WHEN SOMETHING LIKE AN INJURY HAPPENS. IT CONTRACTS TO ALOOW THE BLOOD TO CLOT, AND KEEP IN BODY WARMTH.

    7. ARTERIES, VEINS, CAPILLARIES • ARTERIES ARE THE BIGGEST OF THE THREE, BECAUSE THE WALLS NEED TO BE BIGGER TO WITHSTAND THE PRESSURE OF THE BLOOD BEING PUMPED. THEIR JOB IS TO CARRY BLOOD (BRIGHT RED, RICH IN OXYGEN) AWAY FROM THE HEART. • VEINS CARRY BLOOD (DARK RED, POOR IN OXYGEN) TOWARDS THE HEART. THE BLOOD IN VEINS IS AT LOW PRESSURE, SO VEINS CONTAIN ONE WAY VALVES TO STOP BACKFLOW OF THE BLOOD. • CAPILLARIES ARE TINY LINKS BETWEEN THE VEINS AND ARTERIES WHERE OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS DIFFUSE TO DIFFERENT BODY TISSUES.

    8. BLOOD • BLOOD CONTAINS THREE TYPES OF CELLS: -RED CELLS -WHITE CELLS -PLATELETS • RED CELLS DELIVER OXYGEN, WATER, AND NUTRIENTS • WHITE CELLS FIGHT OFF DISEASES • PLATELETS HELP BLOOD CLOT

    9. BLOOD CIRCULATION • TWO TYPES OF BLOOD CIRCULATION -SYSTEMIC -PULMONARY • SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION: BLOOD VESSELS CARRY OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE HEART TO ALLL TISSUES OF THE BODY, EXCLUDING LUNGS; AND RETURNS DEOXYGENATED BLOOD CARRYING WASTE PRODUCTS, BACK TO THE HEART. • PULMONARY CIRCULATION: BLOOD VESSELS CARRY DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE HEART TO THE LUNGS, WHERE REOXYGENATION (GIVE OFF CARBON DIOXIDE, PICK UP OXYGEN) OCCURS, AND IS THEN TAKEN BACK TO THE HEART FOR TRANSPORT.

    10. NEW TECHNOLOGY:IMPLANTED CARDIOVERTER DEFIBLILLATOR (ICD) OR AUTOMATIC ICD • MINIATURE, INTERNAL VERSIONS OF SHOCK PADDLES • A SMALL ELECTRIC GENERATOR (MADE OF CIRCUITS & BATTERY) WITH WIRES CALLED LEADS THAT CONNECT THE ICD TO YOUR HEART • WEIGHS ABOUT 4 OUNCES • 1/2 INCH THINK BY 2 INCHES WIDE • LEADS ARE FLEXIBLE, INSULATED WIRES WITH AN ELECRTRODE TIP • TIP IS PLACED AGAINST THE HEART WALL AND CARRIES ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TO THE HEART. ALSO SENDS INFO. BACK TO THE ICD FOR STORAGE, KIND OF LIKE ON A DISK IN YOUR COMPUTER • DEFIBRILLATOR LEAD HAS A SHOCKING COIL (SOME HAVE 2) TO DELIVER LARGE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY. • CAN: PACE YOUR HEART, CARDIOVERT YOUR HEART (TIMED SHOCKS TO GET HEART BACK TO CORRECT RHYTHM), OR DEFIBRILLATE YOUR HEART (STOPS HEART FOR A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF TIME, THEN PACEMAKER STARTS OVER). • BETTER THAN DRUGS, HIGHER SURVIVAL RATE AND BETTER OVERALL SURVIVAL.

    11. NEW TECHNOLOGY: LEFT VENTRICAL ASSIST DEVICE (LVAD) • HELPS HEART PUMP BLOOD • 2 MAY BE USED, ONE FOR EACH VENTRICLE • TAKES OVER JOB OF LEFT VENTRICLE- HEART’S MAIN PUMPING CHAMBER • GIVEN TO: PEOPLE WAITING FOR HEART TRANSPLANT (THEIRS IS TOO WEAK TO WORK ON ITS OWN), PEOPLE OUT OF HEART SURGERY WHO CAN’T TAKE THE “LOAD” RIGHT AWAY, PEOPLE WITH SEVERE HEART FAILURE WHO ARE IN A TRIAL FOR PERMANENT TRANSPLANTS • PART IS IMPLANTED IN THE HEART, WHILE THE OTHER PART (ENERGY SUPPLY) PROTRUDES OUT OF THE BODY, AND IS CARRIED ON A BELT OR A SHOULDER STRAP. • CONTAINS AN ELECTRIC PUMP, ELECTRIC CONTROLLER, AN ENERGY SUPPLY ( A BATTERY WEIGHING ABOUT 8 lbs.), & 2 TUBES

    12. NEW TECHNOLOGY:PACEMAKERS • SMALL ELECTRICAL GENERATORS THAT CONTROL YOUR HEART BEAT • FOR THOSE WITH A CHRONIC RHYTHM PROBLEMCIRCUITRY TRANSFORMS THE BATTERY’S ENERGY INTO TINY ELECTRICAL PULSES, THAT GET TO THE HEART THROUGH LEADS • CONNECTER BLOCK IS TRANSPARENT PLASTIC ON TOP OF THE PACEMAKER THAT IS THE SITE OF WHERE THE LEADS MEET THE GENERATOR

    13. HEART ATTACK • Disease • When blood that carries oxygen to your heart is blocked by cholesterol build up in the arteries, you get a heart attack. When a portion of the heart does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, it can die. • Treatment • You should get to the hospital quickly because every minute your heart doesn’t receive oxygen the more permanent damage is done to your heart. Three methods • Drug Injection to dissolve clots(Thrombolysis) • Balloon angioplasty • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    14. STROKE • Disease • A stroke occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the brain. It can be caused by a blood clot in the spinal area where blood is sent. The lack of blood clot to the brain kills brain cells in a matter of minutes. • Treatment • You can go to any number of rehab clinics. A person that has a stroke is not likely to survive after ten years. • Clot busters-breaks clotting • Anticoagulants-breaks clotting • Carotid Endarectomy-surgically remove clot • Angioplasty/Stents-mechanical devices prevent clotting • Surgical Intervention-surgically remove the clot • Endovascular Procedures-a shot that prevents blood rupture in the brain

    15. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE • Disease • Family History, obesity, lack of fitness, poor nutrition,and stress can contribute to high blood pressure. High Blood Pressure is when the blood pressure of a person is greater than 140 over 90. This means your heart is working much harder to pump blood throughout the body. • Treatment • Antihypertensive drugs, • Diuretics (which drains body’s water and salt levels), • ACE inhibitor (reduces angiotension, a chemical that constricts arteries), • Vasodilators (expands blood vessels • Beta-blockers (blocks adrenaline) • Calcium-channel blockers (decrease heart contractions

    16. DIABETES • Disease • Diabetes is a progressive disease in which your body doesn’t make or respond properly to insulin. Insulin is made in the Pancreas and it converts sugar, starches, and other foods into energy. People with Diabetes has a very high blood sugar level. • Treatment • The only real treatment for Diabetes is to take insulin shots as instructed and to exercise often to lower your blood sugar. Eating healthy, with less fats, and sugars can help you prevent having diabetes because anyone who doesn’t eat properly can get diabetes.

    17. BIBLIOGRAPHY: BOOKS • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM BY REGINA AVRAHAM • THE HUMAN BODY BY LOGAN CLENDENING, M.D. • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM BY DR. ALVIN SILVERSTEIN, VIRGINIA SILVERSTEIN, ROBERT SILVERSTEIN • THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION BOOK OF HEARTCARE BY E. GREY DIMOND, M.D.; HERMAN K. HELLERSTEIN, M.D.; WILLIAM J. WELCH, M.D. • HELP YOURSELF TO HEALTH: HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE BY ADA P. KAHN M.P.H. • THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HEALTH: STROKE AND HEART DISEASE BY ANNE GALPERIN • THE HUMAN BODY BY CHARLES CLAYMAN • THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HEALTH: DIABETES BY MAJORIE LITTLE • BSCS BIOLOGY BOOK

    18. BIBLIOGRAPHY: INTERNET • http://library.thinkquest.org/c0115080/?c=circ_sys> • Http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/circulatorysystem.html • Http://thecirculatorysystem.com • Http://innerbody.com/htm/body.html • Http://temos.net/medical/heartattacks.htm • Http://www.americanheart.org • Http://jonsplace.prg/CHF_icds.htm • Http://csmc.edu/cvs/md/valve/vlvtypes.htm • Http://strokeassociation.org • Http://stroke.org • Yahoo.com • Ask.com