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BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE. The scientific study of the chemical substances, processes, and reactions that occur in living organisms. MATTER AND ENERGY. Always here, always will be in one form or the other!. MATTER. Matter IS EVERYTHING AROUND YOU.

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biochemistry the chemistry of life

BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

The scientific study of the chemical substances, processes, and reactions that occur in living organisms

matter and energy

MATTER AND ENERGY

Always here, always will be in one form or the other!

matter
MATTER
  • MatterIS EVERYTHING AROUND YOU.
  • Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy states –
  • Matter can neither be created or destroyed.
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change its form.
  • The total quantity of matter and energy available in the universe is a fixed amount and never any more or less.
matter is anything that has a mass and volume
Matteris anything that has a mass and volume .
  • What is Mass and Volume?
  • Mass = Amount of matter in the object.

Expressed in grams/kilograms

  • Volume= Amount of space that matter occupies

Expressed in cubic units (cc) or (ml)

the states phases of matter
THE STATES/PHASES OF MATTER
  • SOLID –
    • MATTER THAT HAS A DEFINITE SHAPE AND DEFINITE VOLUME
  • LIQUID –
    • MATTER THAT HAS AN INDEFINITE SHAPE AND DEFINITE VOLUME
  • GAS –
    • MATTER THAT HAS AN INDEFINITE SHAPE AND INDEFINITE VOLUME
  • PLASMA –
    • MATTER THAT HAS AN INDEFINITE SHAPE AND INDEFINITEVOLUME WITH ELECTRICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES
what states of matter are in our bodies
WHAT STATES OF MATTER ARE IN OUR BODIES?
  • ALL FOUR
  • SOLID -Bones and Muscles
  • LIQUID - Saliva/Bodily Fluids
  • GAS – Air Lungs & Body Cavities
  • PLASMA - Blood Component
elements simple substances of matter
ELEMENTS– Simple substances of matter
  • 100 OR MORE NATURAL/ARTIFICIAL ELEMENTS
  • CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO SIMPLER SUBSTANCES
  • CHEMICALLY REACT WITH OTHER ELEMENTS
  • ATOMSARE THE BASIC UNITS OF ELEMENTS
atoms matter
ATOMS “MATTER”
  • HAVE MASS – MOST IN NUCLEUS WITH PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
  • HAVE VOLUME – MOST OF SPACE TAKEN UP BY ELECTRON CLOUD
atomic theory
ATOMIC THEORY
  • ALL MATTER MADE OF ATOMS – LIVING/NONLIVING
  • ALL ATOMS OF GIVEN ELEMENT ARE SIMILAR TO ONE ANOTHER BUT DIFFERENT
  • ATOMS OF =>THAN 2 ELEMENTS COMBINE TO FORM COMPOUNDS
  • CHEMICAL REACTIONS INVOLVE REARRANGEMENTS, SEPARATION OR COMBINATION OF ATOMS
  • ATOMS ARE NEVER CREATED OR DESTROYED DURING A CHEMICAL REACTION
atomic structure
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
  • NUCLEUS – CENTER, DENSE AREA OF PROTONS & NEUTRONS
  • ORBIT – MULTI – CONTAIN NEARLY WEIGHTLESS ELECTRONS
atomic terms and properties
ATOMIC TERMS AND PROPERTIES
  • ATOMIC NUMBER = NUMBER OF PROTONS IN NUCLEUS
  • NORMAL CHARGE IS NEUTRAL - #PROTONS = ELECTRONS
  • MOLECULES – 2 OR MORE ATOMS BONDED TOGETHER
  • BOND – CHEMICAL COMBINATION OF ATOMS
    • TYPES OF BONDS– IONIC AND COVALENT
      • IONIC – ONE ATOM GAINS WHILE ONE LOSES ELECTRONS – IONS
      • COVALENT - ATOMS SHARE ELECTRONS
      • HYDROGEN – WEAK, HOLD WATER TOGETHER BY BRIDGING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. BIND MOLECULE PARTS INTO THREE DIMENSIONAL SHAPE
why biochemistry
WHY BIOCHEMISTRY?
  • TWO BASIC REASONS
  • Chemicals provide a source of energy to support life.
  • Chemicals provide structure to the body.
chemical physical reactions
CHEMICAL/PHYSICAL REACTIONS
  • MIXTURES
  • SOLUTIONS
  • COMPOUNDS
  • SUSPENSIONS
  • MACROMOLECULES AND POLYMERS
  • SATURATION POINT
  • LET’S FIND OUT MORE!
chemical reactions
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
  • WHAT IS IT? – TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES CONVERTED INTO A THIRD SUBSTANCE
  • SYNTHESIS – REACTION BY BONDING TOGETHER TO MAKE A NEW COMPOUND
  • DECOMPOSITION – REACTION BY BREAKING DOWN ONE SUBSTANCE INTO TWO OR MORE
  • CATALYST – AFFECT THE RATE OF CHANGE
  • WITHOUT CHANGING THEMSELVES
major body elements
MAJOR BODY ELEMENTS
  • CARBON (C) = 19%
  • HYDROGEN (H) = 10%
  • OXYGEN (O) = 65%
  • NITROGEN (N) = (3%)
  • Phosphorous, Sulfur, Calcium
primary roles of body elements
PRIMARY ROLES OF BODY ELEMENTS
  • OXYGEN–KEY IN BREATHING, WITH H MAKES WATER
  • CARBON – GOOD – BASIS OF ORGANIC LIFE FORMS
  • FORMS AMINO ACIDS/PROTEINS/NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • BAD - FORMS CARBON DIOXIDE – WASTE
  • HYDROGEN – COMBINES WITH OXYGEN TO MAKE WATER. COMBINES WITH CARBON,OXYGEN FOR CARBS, LIPIDS, PROTEINS
    • KEY IN ----- HYDRATION, CHEMICAL REACTION
  • ALL – MAKE THAT ALL IMPORTANT GLUCOSE – ATP - ENERGY
major organic compounds
MAJOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
  • CARBOHYDRATES – ENERGY SOURCE
  • LIPIDS (FATS)– ENERGY STORAGE
  • PROTEINS – STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS
  • NUCLEIC ACIDS – GENETIC CODES
common substances in us
COMMON SUBSTANCES IN US!
  • WATER – 60-80% OF CELLS – HYDROLYSIS, SOLVENT, LUBRICANT
  • CARBON DIOXIDE – WASTE PRODUCT – GLUCOSE
  • MOLECULAR OXYGEN = O₂ - BREATHING
  • AMMONIA – NH₃ - NITROGEN SOURCE FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, INJURIOUS TO CELLS – CONVERTED TO UREA AND EXCRETED
  • MINERAL SALTS – ESSENTIAL FOR CELL SURVIVAL Ca⁺, PO⁻₄, Cl⁻, Na⁺, K⁺
common substances in us1
COMMON SUBSTANCES IN US!
  • CARBOHYDRATES – RIBOSE, DEOXYRIBOSE, GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE. STARCH – GLYCOGEN
  • LIPIDS – INSOLUBLE IN WATER – 95% TRIGLYCERIDES MADE OF GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACID
  • PROTEINS – CHONHS – STRUCTURE, REGULATION
  • NUCLEIC ACIDS – RNA/DNA GENETIC CODING
  • ATP – ENERGY CREATED IN CELL RESPIRATION
major body fluids
MAJOR BODY FLUIDS
  • INTRACELLULAR- FLUID WITHIN THE CELLS
  • INTERSTITIAL– FLUID BETWEEN THE CELLS
  • FLUID IN SPECIAL CAVITIES
  • PERITONEAL FLUID – ABDOMINAL CAVITY

CSF – CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN CRANIAL CAVITY

  • AMNIOTIC FLUID – FLUID IN PREGNANT UTERUS
  • PLASMA – FLUID PORTION OF BLOOD – 60% VOLUME = 92% of which is WATER
electrolytes
ELECTROLYTES
  • HAVE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CHARGE FOR BONDING
  • BODY FUNCTIONS MOST EFFICIENT WHEN WITHIN SPECIFIC RANGE (NL)
  • LOST THROUGH SWEATING
  • LOST THROUGH ELIMINATION OF URINE FECES
homeostasis ph balance
HOMEOSTASIS – pH BALANCE
  • pH – parts hydrogen
  • pH scale – way to measure pH of substance
  • Values = 0-14
  • 7 = neutral
  • <7 = ACID
  • >7 = BASE
  • ACID - >Hydrogen Ions than Hydroxyls
  • BASE < Hydrogen Ions than Hydroxylx
the role of acids and bases
THE ROLE OF ACIDS AND BASES
  • BODY FLUIDS HAVE NORMAL Ph - NARROW RANGE
  • > OR < Ph WILL AFFECT CHEMICAL REACTION
  • NORMAL HUMAN ACTIVITIES SHIFT Ph

CAN YOU NAME SOME?

BUFFERS COMPENSATE FOR CHANGES:

BICARBONATE IN RESPIRATION

PHOSPHATE IN KIDNEYS

PROTEINS IN INTRACELLUAR FLUID

BUFFERS CONTAIN WEAK ACID AND WEAK BASE TO REACT WITH STRONGER ONE TO ADJUST Ph

PUT IT ALL TOGETHER WE HAVE HOMEOSTASIS AND A GOOD WORKING METABOLISM!