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英美文学导论(第八讲) 主讲教师:林春阳. The Literature of Realism The 20 th -century Literature. The Literature of Realism. Ⅰ. Historical Background By the end of the Civil War, most of the force that would typify the 20 th century America had begun to emerge.

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slide4
Ⅰ. Historical Background
  • By the end of the Civil War, most of the force that would typify the 20th century America had begun to emerge.
  • The first conscription laws were passed and the first federal income taxes were levied.
  • In 1865 the first steps toward racial equality was made when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution was adop--ted, abolishing slavery within the Untied States.
  • Increased wealth, and the desire for its conspicuous dis---play, gave rise to a gingerbread era of American design whose prime function was to attract attention.
  • From 1870 to 1890, the total population of the United States doubled.
  • It was the beginnings of what Mark Twain called “The Gilded Age”, the age of excess and extremes, of decline and progress, of poverty and dazzling wealth, of gloom and buoyant hope.
literature
Ⅱ.Literature
  • In the later half of the 19th century, women became nation dominant culture force, a position they have never relinqui- -shed.
  • Although American continued to read works of Hawthorne, etc the great age of American Romanticism had ended.
  • America’s most noteworthy new author established a litera- -ture of realism. They sought to portray the American life as it really was, insisting that the ordinary and the local were as suitable for artistic portrayal as the magnificent and the remote.
  • Realism had originated in France as realism, a literary doctr- -ine that called for “reality and truth”, in the depiction of an ordinary life. “Realism” first appeared in the United States in the literature of local color, and an amalgam of romantic plots and realistic descriptions of things was immediately observable: the dialects, customs, sights, and sounds of regional America.
the main writers
Ⅲ.the main writers

Mark Twain (1835—1910)

slide7
Mark Twain (1835—1910)
  • He is the most famous novelist.
  • The main works

1. “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (拉

维拉驰名的跳蛙)—the first humorous short novel

2. “The Innocents Abroad” (傻瓜出国记)—lay the foundati-

-on of the humorist

3. “The Gilded Age” (镀金时代)—the first novel of American

Realism

4. “The Adventure of Tom Sawyer” (汤姆索耶历险记)

5. “Life on the Mississippi” (密西西比河上)

6. “The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn” (哈克贝里费恩历险

记)

7. “A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court” (亚瑟王朝

廷上的康涅狄格州美国佬)

8. “The Tragedy of Pudd’s nhead Eilson” (傻瓜威尔逊)

9. “The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg” (败坏哈德莱堡人)

slide9
Ⅰ. Historical Background
  • The United States began the 20th century with a population of less than 76,000,000, almost two thirds of it rural.
  • In 1900 the American arts were poised on the brinks of a turbulent modernity.
  • In the years preceding World WarⅠ,19th century realism and naturalism remained vital forces in American literature.
  • Although the form and direction of modern American litera- -ture had clearly begun to emerge in the first decades of the century, the First World War stands as a great dividing line between the 19th century and contemporary America.
  • After the First World War a group of new American dramat- -ists emerged, and the American theatre ceased to be who- -lly dependent on the dramatic traditions of Europe.
  • The social upheavals and the literary concerns of the Great Depression years ended with the prosperity and turmoil brought by the Second World War.
the main writers1
Ⅱ.the main writers
  • Katherine Anne Porter (1890—1980)
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896—1940)
  • William Faulkner (1897—1962)
  • Ernest Hemingway (1899—1961)
katherine anne porter 1890 1980
Katherine Anne Porter (1890—1980)
  • She is good at describing the emancipation of women from the woman’s vision.
  • The main works

1. “The Flowering Judas” (开花的紫荆树)—the first short novel about her Mexico Revolutionary experience

2. “Pale Horse, Pale Rider” (灰色骑士灰色的马)—America before the First World War

3. “The Leaning Tower” (斜塔)

4. “A Ship of Fools” (愚人船)—the only novel

5. Describing her south hometown

(1) “The Old Order” (旧秩序)

(2) “Old Mortality” (修墓老人)

f scott fitzgerald 1896 1940
F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896—1940)
  • The brief of life

1896 born in a poor gentleman family

1917 left the school and joined the army

1920 published the first novel

1924 went to Paris and knew the “Lost Generation”

1940 died

  • The main works

1. “This Side of Paradise” (人间天堂)—the first published novel

2. “The Beautiful and the Damned” (漂亮的冤家)—the second novel

3. “Flappers and Philosophers” (姑娘们与哲学家)—the short novel collection

4. “Tales of Jazz Age” (爵士乐时代的故事)—reflecting the truth con- -dition of Jazz

5. “The Great Gatsby” (了不起的盖茨比)

6. “Tender is the Night” (夜色的温柔)

7. “The Crack-Up” (崩溃)—the prose collection

william faulkner 1897 1962
William Faulkner (1897—1962)
  • He is the novelist.
  • He wrote altogether 23 novels, 11 short novel, 7 poem collect- -ions, 6 camera scripts and 1 TV script.
  • He won the Nobel Literary Prize in 1949 and the Pulizer Prize in 1954 and 1962
  • The main works

1. Poem collection

“The Marble Faun” (大理石牧神)—the first poem collection

2. Novel

(1) “Soldier‘s Pay” (士兵的报酬)—the first novel

(2) “Mosquitoes” (蚊群)

(3) “The Sound and the Fury” (喧嚣与骚动)

(4) “As I Lay Dying” (我弥留之际)

(5) “Light in August” (八月之光)

(6) “Abasalom, Absalom” (押沙龙,押沙龙)

ernest hemingway 1899 1961
Ernest Hemingway (1899—1961)
  • The main works

1. “In Our Time” (在我们的时代里)

2. “The Sun Also Rises” (太阳照样升起)

(1) It is the first novel that lay the foundation of the position in the literary world.

(2) He became the representative of the “Lost Generation” as this work.

3. “A Farewell to Arms” (永别了,武器)

4. “The Old Man and the Sea” (老人与海)

(1) He won the Nobel Literary Prize in 1954.

(2) It reflected his life value and code of conduct.

His works have sometimes been read as an essentially negative

commentary on a modern world filled with sterility, failure, and

death. Yet such a nihilistic vision is repeatedly modified by his aff-

-irmative assertion of the possibility of living with style and coura-

-ge.

the 20 th century american poets
The 20th century American Poets
  • Ezra Pound
  • Wallace Stevens
  • William Carlos Williams
  • Robert Frost
  • Langston Hughes
ezra pound 1885 1972
Ezra Pound(1885—1972)
  • He is the controversial poet.
  • He is regarded as the founder of the 20th century poet.
  • He lay the foundations of the development of the modern poem.
  • The main works

1. “Exultations” (狂喜)

2. “Personae” (人物)

3. “Cathay” (中国)

4. “Cantos” (诗章)

(1) It was said the great modern epic.

(2) It includes 109 poems and 8 unfinished rough drafts.

(3) It described every sides of the history and literary in world.

5. “Des Imagistes” (意象派诗选)

wallace stevens 1879 1955
Wallace Stevens(1879—1955)
  • He won the Pulizer Prize in 1955.
  • His work is primarily motivated by the belief that “idea of order”, that is, true ideas, correspond with an innate order in nature and the universe, and that it is the high privilege of individuals and mankind to discover this correspondence.
  • The main work

“The Necessary Angels” (必要的天使)

william carlos williams 1883 1963
William Carlos Williams(1883—1963)
  • He is one of the most famous American poets in the twentieth century.
  • He developed the free verse introduced by Whitman.
  • He used to write the poems with American dialect and his poem are with the local color.
  • His poems are mainly about the common things in the daily life and discover the beauty, interesting and meaning from these poems.
  • The main works

1. “Collected Later Poems” (近期诗集)

2. “Collected Early Poems” (早期诗集)

3. “Paterson” (佩特森)—the long narrative poem

robert frost 1874 1963
Robert Frost(1874—1963)
  • He was said “New England Poet”.
  • He adopted the traditional poem form and iambic hexameters.
  • His poems are very simple and purity.
  • The main works

1. “A Boy’s Will” (一个男孩的意愿)—the first poem collection

2. “North of Boston” (波士顿的北部)

3. The works won the Pulizer Prize

(1) “New Hamphshire” (新罕布什尔)

(2) “Collected Poems” (诗集)

(3) “A Further Range” (又一片牧场)

(4) “A Witness Tree” (标记树)

robert frost 1902 1967
Robert Frost(1902—1967)
  • He became the leader of the Renaissance and one of the most famous poets in American.
  • His works reflected the truth condition of the workers’ struggle.
  • He tried to write many kinds of literary style but he was good at the poems at the last.
  • The main works

1. “The Weary Blues” (萎靡的布鲁斯)—the first poem collection

2. “Fine Clothes to the Jew” (抵押给犹太人的衣服)

3. “The Dream Keeper and Other Poems” (梦乡人)

4. “Shakespeare in Harlem” (哈莱姆的莎士比亚)